Part Ⅵ READING COMPREHENSION ［30 MIN.］
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION［25 MIN.］
In this section there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the best answer.
Mark your answers on your answer sheet.
Clearly if we are to participate in the society in which we live we must communicate with other people. A great deal of communicating is performed on a person-t o-person basis by the simple means of speech. If we travel in buses, buy things in shops, or eat in restaurants, we are likely to have conversations where we give information or opinions, receive news or comment, and very likely have our views challenged by other members of society.
Face-to-face contact is by no means the only form of communication and during the last two hundred years the art of mass communication has become one of the dominating factors of contemporary society. Two things, above others, have caused t he enormous growth of the communication industry. Firstly, inventiveness has led to advances in printing, telecommunications, photography, radio and television. secondly, speed has revolutionised the transmission and reception of communications so that local news often takes a back seat to national news, which itself i s often almost eclipsed by international news.
No longer is the possession of information confined to a privileged minority. In the last century the wealthy man with his own library was indeed fortunate, but today there are public libraries. Forty years ago people used to flock to the cinema, but now far more people sit at home and turn on the TV to watch a program me that is being channelled into millions of homes. Communication is no longer merely concerned with the transmission of information. The modem communication industry influences the way people live in society and broadens their horizons by allowing access to information, education and entertainment. The printing, broadcasting and advertising industries are all involved with informing, educating and entertaining.
Although a great deal of the material communicated by the mass media is very valuable to the individual and to the society of which he is a part, the vast modem network of communications is open to abuse. However, the mass media are with us for better, for worse, and there is no turning back.
66.In the first paragraph the writer emphasizes the___ of face-t o-face contact in social settings.
A. nature B. limitation C. usefulness D. creativity
67.It is implied in the passage that___.
A.local news used to be the only source of information.
B.local news still takes a significant place.
C.national news is becoming more popular.
D.international news is the fastest transmitted news.
68.Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
A.To possess information used to be a privilege.
B.Public libraries have replaced private libraries.
C.Communication means more than transmission.
D.Information influences ways of life and thinking.
69.From the last paragraph we can infer that the writer is___.
A.indifferent to the harmful influence of the mass media
B.happy about the drastic changes in the mass media
C.pessimistic about the future of the mass media
D.concerned about the wrong use of the mass media
The men and women of Anglo-Saxon England normally bore one name only. Distinguishing epithets were rarely added. These might be patronymic, descriptive or occupational. They were, however, hardly surnames. Heritable names gradually became general in the three centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. It was not until the 13th and 14th centuries that surnames became fixed, although for many years after that, the degree of stability in family names varied considerably in different parts of the country.
British surnames fall mainly into four broad categories: patronymic, occupational, descriptive and local. A few names, it is true, will remain puzzling: foreign names, perhaps, crudely translated, adapted or abbreviated; or artificial names . In fact, over fifty per cent of genuine British surnames derive from place names of different kinds, and so they belong to the last of our four main categories. Even such a name as Simpson may belong to this last group, and not to the first , had the family once had its home in the ancient village of that name. Otherwise, Simpson means "the son of Simon", as might be expected.
Hundreds of occupational surnames are at once familiar to us, or at least recognisable after a little thought: Archer, Carter, Fisher, Mason, Thatcher, Taylor, to name but a few. Hundreds of others are more obscure in their meanings an d testify to the amazing specialisation in medieval arts, crafts and functions. Such are "Day", (Old English for breadmaker) and "Walker" (a fuller whose job it was to clean and thicken newly made cloth).
All these vocational names carry with them a certain gravity and dignity, which descriptive names often lack. Some, it is true, like "Long", "Short" or "Little", are simple. They may be taken quite literally. Others require more thinking: their meanings are slightly different from the modem ones. "Black" and "White " implied dark and fair respectively. "Sharp" meant genuinely discerning, alert, acute rather than quick-witted or clever. Place-names have a lasting interest since there is hardly a town or village in all England that has not at some time given its name to a family. They may be picturesque, even poetical; or they may be pedestrian, even trivial. Among the commoner names which survive with relatively little change from old-English times are "Milton"(middle enclosure) and "Hilton"(enclosure on a hill).
70.Surnames are said to be ___ in Anglo-Saxon England.
A. common B. vocational C. unusual D. descriptive
71.We learn from the first paragraph ___ for many years after the 13th and 14th centuries.
A. family names became descriptive and occupational
B. people in some areas still had no surnames
C. some people kept changing their surnames
D. all family names became fixed in England
72."Patronymic" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to "formed from ___.
A. the name of one's father"
B. the family occupation"
C. one's family home"
D. one's family history"
73.Which of the following sentences is an opinion rather than a fact?
A. hundreds of occupational names are at once familiar to us.
B. "Black" and "White" implied "dark" and "fair" respectively.
C. Vocational names carry with them a certain gravity and dignity.
D. Every place in England has given its name to a family.