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饥荒,贫困何时休?!

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小编摘要:世界观察研究所指出2011年太多的人不能满足其生存需要,比如,近十亿人处于饥饿边缘不能满足温饱,就像许多人是文盲一样。

 2011 Saw Challenges of Hunger and Poverty



The Worldwatch Institute said in 2011 far too many people were living with less than they needed. It says, for example, nearly one billion people were hungry and just as many were illiterate.

Worldwatch Institute’s Danielle Nierenberg said while a billion people went to bed hungry each night, it wasn’t because of a lack of available food.

“We produce more than enough food in the world to not only feed the 7 billion people who are on earth today, but 9 to 11 billion people. By 2050, we expect the population to be about 9 and a half billion people and we currently produce enough food to feed all of those people. But the question is really one of how do we get food to the people who need it the most. Poverty really impedes the progress of allowing people to eat well. Not just getting enough staple crops, but being able to buy fruits and vegetables and the things that will really nourish them,” she said.

The director of the Nourishing the Planet Project said besides poverty and a lack of access to food, much food is simply lost. Worldwatch estimates 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted each year.

“Twenty to fifty percent of the global food harvest is wasted before it can ever reach people’s stomachs. And this is really a moral problem when you consider all of the people who are hungry in the world. The good news about that 20 to 50 percent of global food waste number is that it’s easy to prevent food waste. We can do it in our homes. Consumers can do a lot to prevent food waste by planning meals better, by not buying too much food. In the developing world there are storage systems that are beginning to be put in place that help farmers protect their food from crop diseases or pests or molds and fungus,” she said.
Nierenberg said prevention measures can be put in place all along the food chain.

Part of the problem of malnutrition is a deficiency in micronutrients. A severe lack of Vitamin A, iron and iodine can have lifelong effects. For example, a vitamin A deficiency in children can lead to blindness. An iron deficiency in pregnant women can cause a number of complications.

“One of the biggest problems in the world right now is that we produce a lot of calories. We produce a lot of starchy staple crops, whether it’s rice or wheat or maize. And while that keeps people full and fed, and most of the world really depends on those starch staple crops to survive, we’re not investing as much in the production of fruits and vegetables. Those are the things that contain those essential micronutrients,” she said.

Nierenberg said a lack of access to nutritious food does not necessarily mean affected people are thin. It can be just the opposite. They can be overweight or even obese.

“People don’t have access to healthy, nutritious food. In the United States, we have the highest obesity rates in the world. And this is partly due because many of our citizens don’t have access to grocery stores or farmers’ markets. They live in what are called food deserts. Places where people have to travel very far to grocery stores. In most of these areas the food comes not from supermarkets, but it comes from liquor stores and convenience stores, where unhealthy foods and processed foods are sold,” she said.

While it may not seem obvious, the Worldwatch Institute project director said malnutrition and illiteracy are closely linked.

“When people, especially farmers, don’t have the education that they need to live productive lives, they can’t learn new skills. And in sub-Saharan Africa, women farmers, especially, don’t have access to education. This prevents them from not only learning new cropping techniques and learning new technologies, it also prevents them from being able to access financial and banking services. They can’t have bank accounts. They can’t buy land. They can’t buy the inputs that they need to make their crops more productive,” she said.

Nierenberg said despite the many challenges, Worldwatch is hopeful for the future. She says there are a growing number of innovative projects to address hunger and poverty, while at the same time protecting the environment. These include the World Food Program’s homegrown school feeding initiatives underway in Kenya, Brazil, India, Thailand and other countries. The programs put local food producers in direct contact with schools.

2011见证贫困和饥荒的新挑战

世界观察研究所指出2011年太多的人不能满足其生存需要,比如,近十亿人处于饥饿边缘不能满足温饱,就像许多人是文盲一样。

世界观察研究所Danielle Nierenberg说虽然10亿人每天晚上都饿着肚子入睡,但这并不是因为缺少可食用的食物的缘故。

她说:“我们在世界上生产制造了足够多的食品,这些食品不仅仅能满足今天地球上的70亿人口,而且能满足90-110亿的人口食用。我们预计到2050年人口数量将达到95亿,所以我们现在就生产出了足够多的粮食来满足人口增长的需求。但的确有一个问题就是我们怎么将粮食分送给需求量最大的人。贫穷的确会阻碍人们吃饱吃好的进程。这不仅仅局限于让他们获得主要的农作物,而且还要让他们能买水果、蔬菜和真正有营养能滋养他们的东西。”

滋补星球项目主任说除了贫困和缺乏食物的原因之外,许多的粮食单纯是被白费了。世界观察研究所估计每年都有13亿吨的粮食被浪费掉。

她说:“全球20%-50%的粮食收成在到达人们肚子之前就被浪费掉了。当考虑到世界上所有饥荒的人们时,这的确就变成了一个道德问题。但是,值得欣慰的是我们很容易能阻止那20%-50%粮食的浪费且我们在自己家庭里面就可以完成。消费者通过不要买过多食物和更好地安排规划三餐就可以阻止和预防很多的食物浪费。发展中国家正在开始落实存储系统以帮助农民保护其粮食免受作物疾病、害虫或是霉菌和真菌的侵害。”

Nierenberg说整个食物链阶段我们都可以采取预防性措施。

部分的营养问题主要是微量营养素的缺乏造成的。严重缺乏维他命A、铁和碘也许会对身体造成终生的影响。例如,儿童缺乏维他命A可能会导致失明,怀孕的妇女缺乏铁可能会引发许多的并发症。

“目前世界上最大的问题是不论是水稻、小麦还是玉米,我们都生产了很多的卡路里和含淀粉的作物。在世界大多人依赖那些淀粉含量高的作物生存和填饱肚子的同时,我们并没有在水果和蔬菜区域投入同等多的人力和物力,但是水果和蔬菜却恰恰含有这些基本的微量营养素。”她说道。

Nierenberg说缺乏营养的食物不一定就会使很瘦的人变的更瘦,结果可能相反,可能会使人增加体重甚至是引发肥胖。

“人们不能获得健康和有营养的食物。美国是世界上肥胖率最高的国家,这部分是因为很多的市民不能接近杂货店或是农贸市场,他们生活在我们称之为食品荒漠的地区,这些地方距离杂货店很远,大多数这些区域的食物不来自市场而是来自酒吧和便利商店,不健康的食品和加工过的食品也从这些地方被贩卖出来。”她说道。

世界观察研究所项目负责人说虽然表面上营养不良和文盲没什么关系,但是二者实则紧密相关。

她说:“当人们,尤其是农民没有接受良好的教育时,他们需要过上富裕的生活,但是他们不能学习新的技术。在撒哈拉以南的非洲特别是妇女不能接受教育,这不仅仅阻挡了新种植技术和新科技的学习,还阻挡了她们在金融和银行业服务的机会,她们不能拥有自己的银行账户,不能买地,也不能买能使她们作物更有成效的生产投入。”

Nierenberg说虽然目前存在很多的挑战,但是世界观察研究所对未来还是充满希望和信心的。她说越来越多的解决饥荒和贫困并同时保护环境的创新项目正在出现,这当中包括有世界粮食计划署自主开发的在肯尼亚、巴西印度、泰国和其他国家实行的学校供餐计划,该计划使当地的食品生产商直接与学校接触联系。

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2011-12-30 20:52 编辑:pliny
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