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考研英语写作冲刺绝招:不怕不会就怕不背

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     曾经有同学问:"模板的数量是不是太少了?"跨考教育英语名师回答:"模板的数量越少越好。"同学又问:"那和别人写重了怎么办?"名师答:"咱们还有一个绝招没有用,那就是句子结构的润色和修饰。"
    
    下面跨考教育来谈一谈阐述段的句子写法,供大家参考。
    
    阐述段的句子润色和修饰
    
    方法一:修饰主系表中的is
    
    如果只写it is+名词,句子的结构就比较单调,如果我们把is的写法替换为一些被动结构,效果也不一样,具体的方法如下:
    
    1)It is nothing but+名词
    
    2)It has been well received as+形容词的最高级+名词
    
    3)It has been commonly accepted as one of +形容词最高级+名词s
    
    4)It is considered+名词
    
    5)It can be regarded as+名词
    
    6)It can be seen as +名词
    
    以上其中句子结构,选取任何一种,解决it is 名词,结构简单,字数过少的问题。其中It is nothing more than和It is nothing but可以用于语气的增强,后面五种写法可以让主系表呈现出书面风格。我们可以通过对比,看一看写作的效果。
    
    比如你想表达"英特网是一种娱乐方式"这个意思,如果不会使用句子结构,就只能写成It is a form of entertainment。但是如果选用上述句子结构,就可以分别写成It is nothing but a major means of entertainment. 或者Internet has been well received as the most popular means of entertainment,或者Internet has been commonly accepted as one of the most popular forms of entertainments。大家可以对比一下,这几个写法,是不是比it is a form of entertainment更像书面表达呢?
    
    方法二:主谓宾,thus (let alone) doing and doing句型
    
    除了主系表以外,英语中出出现得最多的就是主谓宾结构了,这种结构在写作时的难点在于,如果是一个动词还比较好安排,但是如果出现两个三个动词,就只能写多个短句,然后中间安插关联词。那么能不能少写几个短句,少安插几个关联词呢?办法之一就是把一个动词安排成谓语结构,把另外两个动词安排成现在分词做伴随状况。
    
    具体形式如下:名词+第一个动词+名词,thus doing and doing
    
    这样写,就把三个动词由平行状态变成一个谓语,两个分词伴随状态。关联词中如果想表达"因此",就把thus安插在doing的前边。只要你写得出三个短句,合并起来就是一个长句。 比如写2002年"民族文化,世界文化"的时候,如果你想表达"中国文化可以促进国与国之间的彼此了解,增进友好关系,经济文化交流。"如果没有以上的句子结构,就只能这么写: Chinese culture can promote mutual understanding between countries, enhancing friendly ties and push forward economic and cultural exchanges.
    
    不能说这么写这不对,反正三个谓语动词平行摆放,看不出句子结构的变化。可是加上关联词又很麻烦:Chinese culture can promote mutual understanding between countries. In this way, it can enhance friendly ties and push forward economic and cultural exchanges. 如果用上述句型写就成了:Chinese culture can promote mutual understanding between countries, thus enhancing friendly ties between them and pushing forward economic and cultural exchanges. 最后一种方法谓语动词、现在分词并用,出现一些结构上变化,比单句加关联词的写法更简单一些。
    
    再比如写2007年"自信"的时候,如果你想表达"有自信的人能够融入社会、创造财富、开创事业"这个意思的时候,就可以写成:A confident man can fit into a competitive society, thus accumulating his wealth and establishing his career.
    
    这个句型还有一个否定的变形,那就是名词+cannot+动词+名词,let alone doing and doing,这里的cannot和let alone是联用的,可以表达"不能实现...就更不用说实现...了。"
    
    比如还是2007年"信心"这篇文章,如果你想表达"表达不自信的人就很难融入竞争型社会,也不能创造财富、开创事业了"。想不到上述句子结构的同学就只能写成:A less confident person cannot fit into a competitive society. He cannot accumulate wealth. And he cannot establish his career. 这个地方否定词not用得多,显得罗嗦,就不如用A less confident person cannot fit into a competitive society, let alone accumulating his wealth and establishing his career. 这样cannot和let alone配合在一起,只用一个not就可以,不用每个句子都写not了。

    方法三:定语从句+比较级:
    
    定语从句在写作中一直是个难点,说它难主要体现在三个地方,其一、需要写两个句子,一主一从,对写单句的能力有要求,其二是有没有必要写,有个考生写there is an American girl who keeps a charming smile on her face,其实这样的写法反而不简洁,直接写An American girl keeps a charming smile岂不更直接?其三是如果把它安排在文章的段首句,虽然可以默写出定语从句,但是会造成雷同。那么怎样才能更灵活地使用定语从句,让它既能默写又不雷同呢?其中一个办法是把定语从句安排成以下的结构:Those who+动词are more likely to+动词,compared with those who don't+动词 。
    
    在这个结构中,第一个划着方框的动词是用来重申文章主题的,中间划横线的动词是想表达的内容,最后一个划着方框的动词和第一个划着方框的动词相同,用来呼应主题,就能把定语从句和比较级联用,使单句写的更趋变化。比如还是2007年"自信"这篇文章,如果你想表达"有自信的人能够融入社会、创造 财富、开创事业"这个意思的时候,就可以写成:Those who have confidence are more likely to fit into a competitive society, thus accumulating his wealth and establishing his career, compared with those who don't have confidence。这么写是不是更像书面语呢?
    
    这个句子结构的前面还有变招,那就是加上和调查研究有关的数据写法,即使你就会两个动词,也能立刻写出长句,还是拿2007年"自信"这篇文章为例,如果考试的时候,你想不了那么多,和"自信"有关的句子只记得"融入社会、得到机会",就可以这么写:先写和数据有关的句子,比如 Department of Sociology, Beijing University made a study of 1,132 citizens for over two months. Despite their age, gender and income levels, there is one thing in common: those who have confidence are more likely to fit into a competitive society and obtain more opportunites, compared with those who don't have confidence. 这样把数据写法和定从交织使用,就能用较少的背诵量,形成快速有效的写作量。
    
    方法四:巧用not only, but also
    
    我们在讲解重要性和有害性句子的时候曾经用过not only, but also,不过这种写法,在not only和but also的后面都只能用一个形容词,的确有些"大材小用",其实not only, but also的变化有很多,可以用它控制主语:Not only will they+动词,but they also will+动词。还可以用它控制宾语:名词+动词+not only+名词1,but also+名词2 and such benefits (problems)as+名词3。
    
    比如2007年的"自信"这篇文章,如果你想表达"自信的人可以融入社会、得到机会",除了用定语从句以外,也可以写成:Not only will a confident person fit into a competitive society, but he also will obtain more opportunities. 再比如说2006年的"追星"这篇文章,如果你想表达"他们浪费了很多本来应该花在工作和学习上的时间,正常生活颠倒,不吃饭、不睡觉、不做作业"就可以 写成:Not only will they waste much time that should have been spent on their study and work, but their everyday life will probably go upside down, with their food uneaten, sleep lost or homework undone。
    
    假如你写作的时候用不出较难的动词也不要紧,只要让动词简单一些,加强名词的具体化即可,因为还有名词+动词+not only+名词1,but also+名词2 and such benefits (problems)as+名词3这个结构帮助你,例如2001年"爱心"这篇文章,在表达"爱心可以给人带来物质支持、情感抚慰和精神支柱"这个意思的 时候,就可以把谓语动词直接处理成bring:Love can bring people not only material support, but also mental comfort and such benefits as spiritual back-up。再比如2003年的文章写"溺爱",如果你想表达"父母给孩子们提供了可口的食品,舒适的住处和时尚的服装",则可以写成:Parents give their children only only delicous food, but also fashionable clothes and such benefits as comfortable dwellings.
    
    方法五:在阐述段的尾句用强调句
    
    在阐述段的尾句中通常可以用"施加好坏影响"或者"利弊对比"这样的句子,就它们改写成强调句,加强语气,写起来也不错。
    
    如果我们想表达"这种行为和态度会对社会的持续发展施加消极影响",就可以先写in my view, 然后用"it is 这种行为和态度that对社会的持续发展施加消极影响"结构,原来的单句就变成了In my view, it is their actions and attitude that exert negative effects on the sustainable development of a society.
    
    同理,如果文章的结尾处,你想表达"这种做法的坏处盖过了好处",也可以写成In my view, it is the side-effects arising from this action that overshadow the so-called benefits.
    
    由于尾句可以提前背,对它进行修饰也就是举手之劳的事情了。
    
    总结:会写短句者会写长句。文章中提到的很多句子同学们应该都比较熟悉,无论是fit into a society, accumulate wealth还是side-effects overshadow the so-called benefits,大家可以先从短句学起,先试着用短句把意思表达清楚,这个时候再参考一些长句串接办法,逐渐学会写出长句。学会了写内容具体的短句,自然就会写结构多变的长句,不然,长句就成了一些公式和架构,不能做到内容形式兼顾。

标签:考研英语
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2011-12-27 15:28 编辑:甯老师
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