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戈尔巴乔夫对外政策改变欧洲格局

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小编摘要:Mikhail Gorbachev 1985年3月11日被选为苏联的领导人。54岁的他是执政当局最年轻的成员,也是这些人选了他当领导。在6年执政期间,他创建的政策彻底地改变了历史的发展,根本上结束来了苏维埃共和国。

 Gorbachev's Foreign Policy Changed Map of Europe


Mikhail Gorbachev was elected Soviet leader on March 11, 1985. At 54, he was the youngest member of the ruling Politburo that voted him into power. For the next six years, he instituted policies that drastically altered the course of history and ultimately brought about the demise of the Soviet Union.

On the domestic front, those policies were known as glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). In foreign affairs, Gorbachev’s reforms were known as "new thinking."

Experts say Gorbachev understood that the Soviet Union could no longer use its military force to increase its influence in the outside world. And in order to create a new foreign policy that could be sustained economically, Gorbachev realized that Moscow would have to - in some areas - retrench.

Archie Brown, Russia expert and Professor Emeritus at the University of Oxford, says one of those areas was Afghanistan, where Soviet troops had been fighting mujahedeen guerrilla forces since December 1979.

"Gorbachev in 1979, when the Soviet intervention took place, he met with [Eduard] Shevardnadze [the Georgian Communist Party leader] - at that time, they were both on the fringes of the top leadership and they were not involved in that decision," said Brown. "And they both agreed that it was a disastrous mistake. Now they didn’t say so in Moscow at the time at meetings there, because if they had, that would put an immediate stop to their political careers."

Shortly after becoming Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev named Shevardnadze foreign minister. And, says Archie Brown, Gorbachev wanted to get Soviet troops out of Afghanistan.

"He didn’t want to do it in such a way to look like a defeat," added Brown. "He had the same problems that leaders of other countries have had, when many lives of their own young men have been lost, how do you explain to the mothers or fathers, for that matter, of these boys, that their deaths had been in vain? So he was trying to get a negotiated retreat. Nevertheless, he took a firm decision that all Soviet troops would be out by February 1989, and they were.”

John Parker, Russia expert with the National Defense University, says Gorbachev also embarked on a radical policy regarding the Soviet military.

"He moved to cut the size of the Soviet army," Parker noted. "That was another thing that people just couldn’t believe he would do. But before long, we saw the numbers start to come down."

Gorbachev’s "new thinking" on foreign policy spread to Eastern Europe, where people were clamoring for an end to communist rule.

In July 1989, the Soviet policy to intervene to prop up communism ("the Brezhnev doctrine") was replaced by what one Gorbachev adviser described as the "Sinatra Doctrine," based on the singer’s popular song, "My Way." In other words, the adviser said East European countries were now able to go their own way - politically and economically - without fear of invasion by Soviet troops.

Archie Brown and others say Gorbachev’s non-interventionist policy ultimately led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989.

"Because of the time difference, it happened while Gorbachev and other members of the Politburo were asleep in their beds in Moscow," recalled Brown. "By the next day, Gorbachev told the East German ambassador they had done the right thing in not trying to stop them and not using force - and he accepted remarkably readily, the fall of the wall and subsequent unification of Germany."

In October 1990, Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Fourteen months later, he resigned as Soviet leader, experts say a victim of forces he unleashed, but ultimately could not control.

戈尔巴乔夫对外政策改变欧洲格局

Mikhail Gorbachev 1985年3月11日被选为苏联的领导人。54岁的他是执政当局最年轻的成员,也是这些人选了他当领导。在6年执政期间,他创建的政策彻底地改变了历史的发展,根本上结束来了苏维埃共和国。

在国内方面,那些政策被看做是开放的,改革性质的。在国际事务上,Gorbachev的改革被认为是“新思想”

专家称,Gorbachev 懂得苏维埃共和国不可能再凭借军事力量来增加国际影响力。为了建立一个新的对外政策,并且可以在经济上可持续的,Gorbachev 意思到莫斯科有必要在一些领域缩减开支。

牛津大学的俄罗斯问题专家,荣誉退休教授Archie Brown说其中一个地区是阿富汗,1979年12月,苏联军队就开始打击圣战者组织游击队。

“1979年,当苏联干预此事时,Gorbachev与格鲁吉亚共产党党领袖举行了会面,他们都是领导核心的边缘人物,他们没有参与决定。”Brown说。“他们都认为重大的错误。他们在莫斯科的那次会议上没有这样说,因为如果他们说了,就等于立即终止自己的政治事业。”

刚上任苏联领导不久, Mikhail Gorbachev任命 Shevardnadze为外交部长。Archie Brown说 Gorbachev 想要让苏联军队撤离阿富汗。

“他不想采趣像打了败仗的方式撤军。”Brown谁说。“他和其他国家领导人有同样的困扰,当很多自己国家的青年男子失去了生命,怎么向他们的父母交待这件事,对于那些男孩,他们的生命就白白牺牲了?所以他试着通过协商的方法撤退。但是他坚决决定所有的苏联军队务必在1989年2月前撤离,确实也是这样的。”

国防大学俄罗斯问题专家John Parker说,Gorbachev 还对苏联军事采取激进政策。

“他开始削减苏联军队,”Parker 说。“这是人们不会相信他会做得另一件事。但不久后,我们就看到军队的数量开始减少。”


Gorbachev在外交政策上的“新思想”传到了东欧,那里的人们强烈要求停止共产党统治。

1989年7月,苏联想干预以支撑起共产主义(“勃列日涅夫主义”)的政策被Gorbachev 的一个顾问形容为来“西纳特拉主义”代替,西纳特拉是一个歌手,这个词来自于他的一首流行歌曲“My Way”。换句话说,东欧一些国家现在已经能够走自己的路了--政治上和经济上--不需要害怕苏联军队的入侵。

Archie Brown 等都说Gorbachev的不干预政策最终促进了1989年9月柏林墙的倒塌。

“因为时差,发生的时候Gorbachev 和其他政治局成员正在莫斯科的床上睡觉。”Brown回忆道,“第二天,Gorbachev 告诉东德大使说他们没有阻止也没有用武力是正确的。”

1990年10月,Mikhail Gorbachev获得了诺贝尔和平奖。14个月后,他辞去了苏联领导人职务,专家说他解放了军队受害者,遗憾的是最终没能控制。

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2011-12-23 20:33 编辑:pliny
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