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2011年8-9月gmat语法机经(至8.26)(一)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:2615 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

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 1、LBSJodie(V30)

  (1)语法考了很多not only but also的用法。有一题因为觉得其他选项都不对,所以选了用both and的选项。

  not only but also常见考点摘自PREP语法

  考点:

  ①not only,but also倒装的时候在but 和also之间是可以重复主语的

  ②but also中的also可以省略

  ③but also不考平行,单独出现

  【PREP-08-1-197练习】

  Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also caused erosion and very quickly deforested whole regions.

  A. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also

  B. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast), which gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also

  C. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States, creating farmland (especially in the Northeast) and giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also

  D. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States created farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also

  E. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States not only created farmland (especially in the Northeast), giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it

  考点:

  1. 平行,关于not only…but also,参见本题后补充说明所摘录的Zeldaw里程碑式的帖子:

  2. 逻辑为王:

  如果你一眼看出这个句子考not only,but also于是开始找答案,恭喜你,又上当了。

  做题的时候要弄清楚句子的意思是递进还是转折,如果是递进not only...but also 没问题,如果是转折的话,就要考虑一下是否是GMAC的陷阱了, but/but also才是表示转折的意思.

  选项分析:

  A. not only 位于句首时,所引导的句子要用倒装,give和create是and连接的两个并列成分,而时态已经被did提前,只能用原形,所以这里gave错;But it also在此没有错,例见本题后补充的大全354。

  B. Which定语从句修饰farmland,逻辑意义错误,是systematic clearing给了consumers houses and furniture,不是farmland。

  C. But also之前分句缺谓语

  D. Correct;But it also转折前后句,说明systematic clearing既带来了好东西,也带了坏东西,also的使用,精妙。

  E. Giving修饰created,改变了原来的句意:并列的两个动作;Not only…but…也可以,例见大全189、241.

  Not only but also补充说明【摘自PREP08】:

  Zeldaw的帖子摘录如下:

  关于not only...but also...----从GWD8-20总结出的

  看了GWD8-20, 以前的NN讨论的的太好了,可是藏的太深,很多人都看不见, 后来又看了好些的帖子,,收益良多.所以我把大家观点总结一下,

  首先Not only…..but (also)表示的关系是递进, 其中also可以省略

  But/but also表示的是转折. 在but also中, ring_cheng认为also不属于重复, 所以应当保留.该观点尚未证实.

  not only ...but also表示并列,不能表示转折,不要有先入为主的感觉认为not only...but also必须一起出现。单独出现but also是可能的,此时表示的是转折,参见大全74

  All-terrain vehicles have allowed vacationers to reach many previously inaccessible areas, but they have also been blamed for causing hundreds of deaths, injury to thousands, and seriously damaging the nation’s recreational areas.

  (A) deaths, injury to thousands, and seriously damaging

  (B) deaths and injuring thousands, and serious damage to

  (C) deaths, thousands who are injured, as well as seriously damaging

  (D) deaths and thousands of injuries, as well as doing serious damage to (D)

  (E) deaths, thousands are injured, and they do serious damage to

  关于not only…but also.. 的用法,我根据前人的发言并结合GMAT的思路挑出了这几条:

  1.在正常语序中: not only … but also 应连接两个相对称的并列成分。例如:

  Not only Mr Lin but also his son joined the Party two years ago. (连接两个主语)

  I not only play tennis but also practise shooting. (连接两个谓语动词)

  He plays not only the piano but also the violin. (连接两个宾语) 在正常语序(有例外)中: 短语本身不可以加入其它成份,比如变成:not only...but it also...是错误的(因为破坏了平衡)。

  如大全中:

  125.The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby reducing the potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants.

  (A) and also damage or destroy

  (B) as well as damaging or destroying

  (C) but they also cause damage or destroy

  (D) but also damage or destroy(D)

  (E) but also causing damage or destroying

  Choice D, the best answer, correctly employs the correlative construction not only x but also y, where x and y are grammatically parallel and where both x and y (damage and destroy) apply to young plants. Choices A, (not only... and also), B (not only... as well as), and C (not only... but they also) violate the not only... but also paradigm. Moreover, B contains terms (blow... damaging) that are not parallel. In C and E, damage is used not as a verb with young plants as its direct object but as a noun receiving the action of cause; consequently, these choices fail to state explicitly that the damage is done to young plants. E also violates parallelism (not only blow... but also causing)

  2. not only … but also 连接两个主语时,谓语动词要和与其最近的主语保持人称和数的一致。例如:

  Not only the students but also the teacher was against the plan. / Not only the teacher but also the students were against the plan.

  3. not only … but also 不能用在否定句中。例如:

  误: They don't fear not only hardship but also death.

  正: They fear neither hardship nor death.

  正: They don't fear either hardship or death.

  4. not only … but also 连接两个分句,并且 not only 位于句首时,第一个分句中的主语和谓语要部分倒装。例如:

  Not only does the sun give us light, but also it gives us heat.

  Not only did he speak English correctly, but he also speaks it fluently.

  《新编英语语法》薄冰P633:Not only does he compose music, but he also play./ Not only does he have to type out the answer on a computer, but he also gets the computer to translate it into sounds.

  《新编英语语法》章振邦1005:She was not only compelled to stay at home, but she was also forbidden to see her friends

  英语语法大全上的例句是: Not only did they break into his office and steal his books, but they also tore up his manuscripts.

  这里附上ring_cheng的观点:倒装时可以在短语中插入某类成分,如:not only did sb do sth, but sb also did sth (之所以前后都加入主语,不是为了连接主语,而是为了句子的对仗工整而补足主语,连接的其实是主语的两个不同的谓语动作。又因为not only在句首已经倒装过了,所以but also用正常语序即可。依然满足句子平衡的要求).如大全354中but also被主语+助动词拆开:

  354.In 1978 a national study found that not only had many contractors licensed by a self-policing private guild failed to pass qualifying exams, they in addition falsified their references.

  A. they in addition falsified their references

  B. they had their references falsified in addition

  C. but they had also falsified their references

  D. they had also falsified their references

  E. but their references were falsified as well (C)

  (2)还考了破折号和倒装。

 高级【倒装结构】大总结,迎合GMAT考点要求– by charlesxiepeng

一.完全倒装

  1. 表语在句首要倒装

  •介词短语/分词短语/形容词短语+系动词+主语(主语与前面的动词主谓一致)

  1) 介词短语在句首

  Among the people was a man named Brown. 在这些人中有一个叫布朗的人。

  On the top of the hill stands an old temple. 这山顶上有一座庙。

  From the valley came a frightening sound with some cries.

  North of the city lies/is a new airport.

  2) 分词作表语

  •过去分词(有时构成被动结构的过去分词)提前到句首,引起倒装

  •构成进行时态的现在分词也可以提到前面来----张道真(正常语序看是进行时态)

  Helping them raise their artistic level are various professorial organizations.

  Visiting the Great Wall were 200 American college students.

  Coinciding with the development of jazz in New Orleans in the 1920's was one of the greatest periods in blues music. (toefl原句)【coinciding with…显然不是动名词而是现在分词倒装】

  •现在分词提前到句首引起倒装要和动名词作主语区别开来

  •下面例句是动名词作主语:Teaching English is my job. / Visiting the Great wall is worthwhile.

  3) 形容词短语放句首

  Present at the meeting is our English teacher. (Present出席的,在场的)

  Gone are the days when we had a good time at the mountain village. (Gone 离去的)

  2. 为了保持句子平行或上下文的连接更紧密,也可以采用倒装.

  They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.

  •主语有过多修饰语亦可采用完全倒装

  Noteworthy is the fact that he has talent for music.


二.部分倒装

  1. 一些表示频率的副词(如many a time, often等)位于句首时 ,句子部分倒装.

  Often did we go for walks together.

  Many a time have I told him about it.

  2. 用于“no sooner…than…, hardly…when…和not until等结构中”

  No sooner had he arrived than someone called him.他一到就有人给他打电话

  3. 用于省略if的虚拟条件状语从句(把were, had, should放在主语前构成倒装)

  Were I you ( = If I were you ), I would not accept his present.

  Had you ( = If you had ) studied hard, you might have passed the exam this time.

  4. 用于“形容词/名词/动词+as (though)”引导的让步状语从句,例如:

  •形容词:Pretty as she is(=As pretty as she is=though she is pretty), she is not clever at all.

  •动词:Try as he could, he might fail again.

  •名词:Child as he was, he had to sell newspapers in the streets.

  5. 否定副词(never, not…, seldom, hardly, neither, nor, scarcely, rarely, no longer, barely, little)

  Barely did he have time to catch the bus.

  Never have I been to Beijing.

  6. So / Such 引导的倒装句

  So kind is she that she deserves all my respect.(全倒装)

  So loudly did he speak that everyone could hear him.

  7. Only在句首强调状语Only when the meeting is over can we know the decision.

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2011-12-23 12:01 编辑:cwf1986
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