V1：byxmqmaggie (8.24 23:00)
patent granting 什么的。。
考古： by Serena0710 (8.24 23:00)
The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semiconductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity. Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry’s most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980’s, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms’ patents declined. Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980’s. This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semiconductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suites or as a means to block competitors’ products.
The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
A.a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results (GWD答案)
B.a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process
C.the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 (PREP答案)
D.reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E.certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry GWD-8-Q8 :
The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?
A.The declining number of citations per semiconductor patent in the technical literature undermines the notion that patenting activity increased during this period.
B.A decline in patent quality forced firms to change the way they managed the patenting process.
C.Increased efficiencies allowed firms to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures.
D.Firms’ emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
E.Firms’ attempts to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures may have contributed to a decline in infringement suites.
The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A.It was higher in the early 1980’s than it was a decade later. (已修正)
B.It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C.It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D.It is not adequately discussed in the industry’s technical literature.
E.It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.
GWD-8-Q10: (据考过同学反映 本题在实考时并未遇到)
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author’s claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A.It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries
B.Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature
C.It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent
D.There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970’s than in the 1980’s
E.Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents. (已修正)
此题GWD答案 ADAE 但貌似prep答案是CDAE
Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semiconductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity.
然后， Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that.....说质量也下降了，作为第二层意思。然后扯了点别的，关于证明质量的确下降是如何衡量的。最后回到第二层意思分析质量下降是由于changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process。
V1：by starking0410(8.25 14：30)
OZONE的 各种减少污染的办法 但都不好 里面有说一个加拿大的BALABALA 好像说 尽管不好 但是还是有效果的
V1：by Scottla (8.25 14：30)
p1: 餐厅采用一种质量保证策略，这种策略对高级饭店和平价饭店的反差效果， 对高级饭店作用大，对平价饭店只有反作用，因为顾客已经熟悉饭店的产品和特色，说质量保证反而会让人怀疑餐厅是不是质量有问题云云
V2： by marque (8.25 14：30)
他的第二段我想起来了，说 对于服务的保证不是为了追求追求顾客的满意，而是为了给公司的生产提供规范，给员工提供模板。 像是上个月的寂静吧
V3： by Allyson1990 740 (8.25 23:30)
是讲quality-guarantee对于餐馆有什么影响。大意是，这个是分情况的。对于高端餐馆是更加好，而对于低端餐馆反倒有负面作用因为反映了餐馆对自己服务质量的不自信。文章用词简单，很快就可以看完。题目记得两个：一题是问主旨，把我给坑了半天，因为一个是the advantages and disadvantages of gurantee to restaurant industry,另一个是the impact of the guarantee on the service of the restaurant.纠结了半天选了第一个，因为第二个光说其对服务的影响好像不大对，应该是对餐馆盈利啊名声啊的综合影响。还有一题大意是定位原文改写了下，意思就是这种guarantee对于低端餐馆的一点不好是，那些对这个餐馆的服务和特点太熟悉的顾客，那些“维权意识”太强的顾客，会更多的质问这个餐馆。
V4：by freddyshen227 750 (8.26 22:00)
service guarantee是否会对行业里面的服务有帮助。一段讲了对高端餐馆有正面影响，对低端餐馆有负面影响。 二段讲了对制造业的影响更加正面，以及对公司里面的管理者和员工影响不大。大概意思是这，希望指正!
第二段又说了对于其它行业的影响 因为没有靠到相关考题就没仔细看 不过感觉上是正评价
V6：by ywu23 V32 660 (8.27 13:45)
两段 第一段说for high priced restaurant, service guarantee is useful, but for low-priced restaurant, it has negative effect cos customers already have information on the service quality. Service guarantee will make the costumer think that the manager is not confident.
第二段说 but service guarantee is more useful for staff in the restaurant, making them be aware of the operation objective of the restaurant.
题目：一道主旨题 我选了sg对于restaurant的disadvantage and advantage.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、