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2011年8-9月gmat阅读机经(至8.29) (十五)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:2780 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

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*46、patent granting

  V1:byxmqmaggie (8.24 23:00)

  patent granting 什么的。。

  考古: by Serena0710 (8.24 23:00)

  阅读有一篇讲专利权的,因为当时做得很混乱,实在抱歉,不能帮到大家什么。++

  现在想起来一点内容:是说一些经济学家说设置专利权的最初目的是为了保护和提倡创新,然后随着经济变动,很多商家弄越来越多的专利,但是里面真正创新的内容很少,他们搞那么多专利的目的偏离了设置专利权的最初目标,而是设置商业壁垒。

  但是GWD原文还没有被确认,希望好心人认领一下~~

  GWD-TN-6 Q7-Q10

  The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semiconductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity. Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry’s most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980’s, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms’ patents declined. Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980’s. This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semiconductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suites or as a means to block competitors’ products.

  GWD-8-Q7 :

  The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

  A.a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results (GWD答案)

  B.a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process

  C.the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 (PREP答案)

  D.reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992

  E.certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry GWD-8-Q8 :

  The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?

  A.The declining number of citations per semiconductor patent in the technical literature undermines the notion that patenting activity increased during this period.

  B.A decline in patent quality forced firms to change the way they managed the patenting process.

  C.Increased efficiencies allowed firms to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures.

  D.Firms’ emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.

  E.Firms’ attempts to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures may have contributed to a decline in infringement suites.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

  GWD-8-Q9 :

  The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

  A.It was higher in the early 1980’s than it was a decade later. (已修正)

  B.It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.

  C.It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.

  D.It is not adequately discussed in the industry’s technical literature.

  E.It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------

  GWD-8-Q10: (据考过同学反映 本题在实考时并未遇到)

  Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author’s claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?

  A.It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries

  B.Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature

  C.It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent

  D.There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970’s than in the 1980’s

  E.Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents. (已修正)

  此题GWD答案 ADAE 但貌似prep答案是CDAE

  选A意见:

  Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semiconductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity.

  a比c更准确

  c选项不是宽泛是局限

  这么说吧,文章讲的前半部分,是你说的connectiion

  但是你仔细的看后面,就会发现,讲了质量下降,衡量质量的标准,已经剖析原因

  都是一项研究的内容与你的connectiion,已经脱离了关系了~

  选C意见:

  开头几句的主旨就是c。

  然后举了semiconductor展开,发现投入没有增加,作为第一层意思。

  然后, Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that.....说质量也下降了,作为第二层意思。然后扯了点别的,关于证明质量的确下降是如何衡量的。最后回到第二层意思分析质量下降是由于changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process。

  纵观全文,主旨还是C。

47、臭氧

  V1:by starking0410(8.25 14:30)

  OZONE的 各种减少污染的办法 但都不好 里面有说一个加拿大的BALABALA 好像说 尽管不好 但是还是有效果的


48、质量保证策略

  V1:by Scottla (8.25 14:30)

  我的第一篇阅读,不长,4/3屏的样子

  p1: 餐厅采用一种质量保证策略,这种策略对高级饭店和平价饭店的反差效果, 对高级饭店作用大,对平价饭店只有反作用,因为顾客已经熟悉饭店的产品和特色,说质量保证反而会让人怀疑餐厅是不是质量有问题云云

  P2: 不太记得了,印象中是总结了该策略的效果

  V2: by marque (8.25 14:30)

  讲产品保证的,突然间想起,似乎又有些模糊了,说卖贵东西的店子最好要产品保证,因为这样可以对于顾客来说是质量品质的保证,然而对于便宜的店子来讲,最好不要保证了,否则大家会认为你是在促销质量有问题的产品。

  第二段仔细讲了下原因吧,不长, 半瓶的样子,三道题,都不难...

  他的第二段我想起来了,说 对于服务的保证不是为了追求追求顾客的满意,而是为了给公司的生产提供规范,给员工提供模板。 像是上个月的寂静吧

  V3: by Allyson1990 740 (8.25 23:30)

  是讲quality-guarantee对于餐馆有什么影响。大意是,这个是分情况的。对于高端餐馆是更加好,而对于低端餐馆反倒有负面作用因为反映了餐馆对自己服务质量的不自信。文章用词简单,很快就可以看完。题目记得两个:一题是问主旨,把我给坑了半天,因为一个是the advantages and disadvantages of gurantee to restaurant industry,另一个是the impact of the guarantee on the service of the restaurant.纠结了半天选了第一个,因为第二个光说其对服务的影响好像不大对,应该是对餐馆盈利啊名声啊的综合影响。还有一题大意是定位原文改写了下,意思就是这种guarantee对于低端餐馆的一点不好是,那些对这个餐馆的服务和特点太熟悉的顾客,那些“维权意识”太强的顾客,会更多的质问这个餐馆。

  V4:by freddyshen227 750 (8.26 22:00)

  service guarantee是否会对行业里面的服务有帮助。一段讲了对高端餐馆有正面影响,对低端餐馆有负面影响。 二段讲了对制造业的影响更加正面,以及对公司里面的管理者和员工影响不大。大概意思是这,希望指正!

   一个商业策略 第一段说它对于不同restaurant的影响:高级餐厅正效果;低级餐厅反效果

  第二段又说了对于其它行业的影响 因为没有靠到相关考题就没仔细看 不过感觉上是正评价

  V6:by ywu23 V32 660 (8.27 13:45)

  讲service guarantee在restaurant的经营的作用

  两段 第一段说for high priced restaurant, service guarantee is useful, but for low-priced restaurant, it has negative effect cos customers already have information on the service quality. Service guarantee will make the costumer think that the manager is not confident.

  第二段说 but service guarantee is more useful for staff in the restaurant, making them be aware of the operation objective of the restaurant.

  题目:一道主旨题 我选了sg对于restaurant的disadvantage and advantage.

  一道问为什么sg对于low-priced没有用

  剩下的题我忘了的

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2011-12-22 10:30 编辑:cwf1986
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