“All citizens should be required to perform a specified amount of public service. Such service would benefit not only the country as a whole but also the individual participants.”(34)
1. 比起专业的公共服务组织，所有的公民都完成一定的公共服务显得比较低效率。因为我们是在一个高度专业化分工十分明晰的社会，放弃专业的公共服务组织而采取强制性的公民义务形式的服务会使得效率十分低下，而且也会让大多数 人不满，毕竟每个人都有自己的职业和爱好。
3. 诚然就象作者所说的那样确实会从整体上给国家带来一定的好处，同时给每个参与的人提供和更多人交流等机会，但是在权衡利弊之后尤其是在和专业化组织对比之后还是得不偿失的be not worth the candle mandatory compulsory ...be weighed against ...
individual compliance enforcement nullify stifle incompetence competent tantamount to 等价 insofar as...
1. 对于国家和社会的好处：首先，强制性mandatory social work可以增加人力资源——因为social work的wage比较低，所以在非强制的情况下，只有少数人愿意参加，这样导致了人员的不足;广泛的参与extensive participation可以引起大家的重视——激发人们更加爱护公共设施,从而降低整个expense on the maintaining. 因为公共设施becomes a aggregation of the hard work of all the citizens. 人们不付出努力,就不会珍惜
2. 对参与者的好处: The principal thing in this world is to keep one’s soul aloft. Flaubert(the great novelist)公共服务可以使人们更加意识到自己的社会责任感duty, 也同时有益于平时的工作; 可以增加人与人的交流, 在完全没有压力的环境下, 心灵得到放松.
3. 当然, 完全强制有可能引起stimulate抵触emotion of repellence, 也要注意方法,同时不要影响正常的工作.
View1: public service, a main approach to show social responsibilities, benefits both the county and the participants.
View2: When becomes a burden and stress to the participants, public service harm not only individual performers but also entire society. Cost of enforcement, reduction of efficiency, increase of abhorrence.
The potential benefits of mandatory public service must be weighed against administrative problems and concerns about individual liberty. On balance, the costs to a nation and to the participants would probably exceed the benefits.
Admittedly, a colorable argument can be made for mandatory public service. It would help alleviate “free-rider” problems, where those who do not contribute benefit from the efforts of those who do. It would mitigate pressing social problems—with education, public health and safety, and the environment. It might instill in participants a sense of civic duty, community, and individual responsibility. Finally, it has worked on a smaller scale, particularly in urban areas, where renewal projects succeed in making communities safer, healthier, and more prosperous.
Far more compelling, however, are the arguments against mandatory public service. First, who would make assignments and decide what projects are worthwhile, and how would compliance be assured? Resolving enforcement issues would require government control, in turn requiring increased taxes and/or cuts in other social programs, thereby nullifying the benefits of mandatory public service. Second, a mandatory system would open the floodgates to incompetence and inexperience. Finally, the whole notion seems tantamount to Communism insofar as each citizen must contribute, according to his or her ability, to a strong state. Modern history informs us that such systems do not work. One could argue that mandatory public service is simply a tax in the form of labor rather than dollars. However, compulsory labor smacks of involuntary servitude, whereas financial taxes do not.
In conclusion, logistical and philosophical barriers to mandating public service outweigh its potential benefits for the nation as well as for participants.
41. As fossil fuel resources are limited and vital, international aggreements should be adopted to require all of the countries to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels.
V1.since fossile fuel vailed and limited, international agreement 要 reduce fuel ...... 问你同意还是不同意
v2.Fossil fuel resources: For the Fossil fuel resources is XXX and limited, 有必要制定一个针对所有国家的 international agreement，来限制各个国家对fossil fuel的依赖。(最后小半句不太确定，请其它CDer补充)
要不要adopt一个international agreement on reducing the dependence on fossil fuel resources。
[V3] The fossil energy are vital and limited. International agreement should be adopted for all countries to decrease the dependence on the fossil energy
[V4] fossil fuel resources are vital and limited, international agreements should be adopted that would require all the nations reduce the use of fossil fuel.
1、首先，虽然不愿意，但仍然要承认，自私几乎是天性。self consideration优先。在没有广泛的行动时，每一个国家都不愿意在自己作出牺牲的同时，其他国家没有行动。这样不公平，也不可能达到。这时，领导的作用很重要。安排各国家工作，协调各国家活动。有一个行动的指导作用。function as the leader of the group.
2、而且，保护资源是全球的问题，指望单个国家作出牺牲是不够的。因为在全球化经济发展下，资源几乎是全球运转的。比如，美国会向中国进口木材等原料。所以需要合作。大的跨国公司在其中扮演重要的角色。比如，开发非洲的，有很多是欧洲的公司，跨国公司的举动会影响到很多国家的经济政策。nuclear weapons proliferation
by the same token, the problem of energy conservation transcends the national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will suffer.
3、当然，这样是不够的，必须由各个国家充分地发挥主动的作用take positive action。因为资源是全人类的，每个国家都有责任并且都有必要。只有将统一领导与各国的积极性作用一起结合，才是最effective的方法。
Sacrifice/ expense/ offering/ cost
Conserve/ protect/ guard/ keep/ maintain
To conserve the energy resources is a worldwide project, however, individual nations have been take the responsibilities of energy conservation initiatively without international leadership.
International leadership and worldwide cooperation play important roles in the protection of energy resources.
Evidence: OPEC is one of the best examples. OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is an international organization of eleven developing countries that are heavily reliant on oil revenues as their main source of income. Since oil revenues are so vital for the economic development of these nations, they aim to bring stability and harmony to the oil market by adjusting their oil output to help ensure a balance between supply and demand. In the long run, the stabilized out-put help to cease the problem of over-refining and over utilization of oil energy.
It is not idealistic to expect the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy independently. Factors other than international leadership and world wide cooperation have driven individual nations to conserve energy. These countries conserve energy purely for their own benefit in the future.
Most nations in Europe have developed and used automobiles that are highly energy efficient.
Japan is a country naturally with nearly no energy resources, so it make great effort to conserve energy for future generations. An famous case is that Japan once brought crude oil from other countries and buried it under the sea .
42. technology seperates and alienates people more than bring them together
原题：“Technology ultimately separates and alienates people more than it serves to bring them together.”
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