The only way to make a businessperson's profit is to follow the highest standards of ethics.
原题：“The most effective business leaders are those who maintain the highest ethical standards.”
2、 支持者会认为, 高道德会赢得reputation and trust; 第一, 高道德生产高质量的产品以及service,顾客稳定stable share of the market; 第二, 高道德会让员工满意度提高(公平，平等). 从而attract those applicants with high ability and keep the employees loyal to the company---最终导致高的productivity.
例子：Bayer, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, announced that the company would cease production of one of its major products, because of the hazardous ingredients it contained. By doing so, the company suffers great loss on profitability, but gains strong public support and understanding, which can contribute to the long-term success of the company.
3、 但在更多的情况下, 高道德也许不equal to maximal profit. 比如,a, 如果把道德放在第一位的话,企业的executive很可能无法执行裁员活动complete the normal administration, such as raising the price, reducing the superabundant staff… b, 高道德的话，很可能采用最高标准的环保生产——这样很不是cost-effective. 总之，Following such undue concern about ethics, the company may find it impossible to survive in the radical competitive market, let alone to gain large profit.
View1: the definition of highest standards of ethics varies from person to person and time to time. Therefore, it is impractical to find and then stick to the highest standards of ethics.
View2: the regulations and laws of authorities are more feasible and suitable standards to follow.
View3: while waiting for government regulations may draw back the processes of eliminating the ill actions, we can count on the authorities to speed up the process of refining the laws and regulations.
The speaker claims that following high ethical standards is the best way to maximize profits in the long run. However, this claim seems to be more of a normative statement than an empirical observation. The issue is more complex than the speaker suggests. In my observation, the two objectives at times coincide but at other times conflict.
In many ways behaving ethically can benefit a business. Ethical conduct will gain a company good reputation that earns repeated business. Treating suppliers, customers and others fairly is likely to result in their reciprocating. Finally, a company that treats its employees fairly and with respect will gain their loyalty which, in turn, usually translates into higher productivity.
On the other hand, taking the most ethical course of action may in many cases reduce profits, in the short run and beyond. Consider the details of a merger in which both firms hope to profit from a synergy gained thereby. If the details of the merger hinge on the ethical conviction that as few employees as possible should lose their jobs, the key executives may lose sight of the fact that a leaner, less labor-intensive organization might be necessary for long-term survival. Thus, undue concern with ethics in this case would results in lower profits and perhaps ultimate business failure.
This merger scenario points out a larger argument that the speaker misses entirely-that profit maximization is per se the highest ethical objective in private business. Why? By maximizing profits, businesses bestow a variety of important benefits on their community and on society: they employ more people, stimulate the economy, and enhance healthy competition. In short, the profit motive is the key to ensuring that the members of a free market society survive and thrive. While this argument might ignore implications for the natural environment and for socioeconomic justice, it is a compelling argument nonetheless.
Thus the choice to follow high ethical standards should not be made by thinking that ethical conduct is profitable. While in some cases a commitment to high ethical standards might benefit a company financially, in many cases it will not. In the final analysis, businesses might best be advised to view their attempts to maximize profits as highly ethical behavior.
demand & technology 这种都在变化 工人担心失去工作 但应该是他们而不是政府和公司承担责任
原题：“As technologies and the demand for certain services change, many workers will lose their jobs. The responsibility for those people to adjust to such change should belong to the individual worker, not to government or to business.”
1、 The government should be responsible for the adjustment of the workers. If all the citizens should be responsible for themselves, there is no use for the government to exist.
2、 The government should also force the business to involve in the project. Because the government itself is incapable of doing so without concrete knowledge of each certain industry. In the long run, doing so will also benefit the business.
3、 Admittedly, the workers should not rely on others to help them to adjust to varying situations. They themselves should adapt their skills and knowledge to the change of the industry and of the society.
1、 个人确实应该首先take the chief responsibility of their job obsolescence. 因为对自己的生活负责的人，首先是自己。现在的社会也提供了机会：很多学校提供短期的培训，人们可以参加保持自己keep up with the changes of the technologies and new direction of businesses。第二，只有个人采取主动，才能从根本上解决问题。否则merely rely on the help coming from government or business，人们会变得消极become passive and lose enterprise. 长期以来，对整个社会都有negative impact on the further development of one society.
2、 但是，这不是说企业不应该负责。after all, 是企业作出了创新和改变，并且造成了这些改变——并且造成了job obsolescence。应该为这些负责任。比如，为员工提供opportunity of training for the new technique…，这样也可以节约重新培训totally new employee的cost。
3、 Moreover, 政府也应该采取一些行动。政府作为一个社会的管理者supervisor，有责任保证全社会的well being. 应该帮助个人完成适应adjustment. 可以通过提供一些insurance for unemployment, advice for the occupational choice, necessary information of the new trend of business…
Thesis sentence: While individuals have primary responsibility for learning new skills and finding work, both industry and government have some obligation to provide them the means of doing so
View1: l agree that individuals must assume primary responsibility for adjusting to job obsolescence, especially since our educational system has been preparing us for it
View2: However, industry should bear some of the responsibility as well. It is industry, after all, that determines the particular directions technological progress and subsequent social change will take. Moreover in the long run, doing so will also benefit the business.
View3: Government should also assume some of the responsibility, since it is partly government money that fuels technological progress in industry. Moreover, government should help because it can help—for example, by ensuring that grants and federally insured student loans are available to those who must retool in order to find new work. Government can also help by observing and recording trends in worker displacement and in job opportunities, and by providing this information to individuals so that they can make prudent decisions about their own further education and job searches.
As technology and changing social needs render more and more jobs obsolete, who is responsible for helping displaced workers adjust? While individuals have primary responsibility for learning new skills and finding work, both industry and government have some obligation to provide them the means of doing so.
l agree that individuals must assume primary responsibility for adjusting to job obsolescence, especially since our educational system has been preparing us for it. For decades, our schools have been counseling young people to expect and prepare for numerous major career changes during their lives. And concerned educators have recognized and responded to this eventuality with a broader base of practical and theoretical coursework that affords students the flexibility to move from one career to another.
However, industry should bear some of the responsibility as well. It is industry, after all, that determines the particular directions technological progress and subsequent social change will take. And since industry is mainly responsible for worker displacement, it has a duty to help displaced workers adjust—through such means as on-site training programs and stipends for further education.
Government should also assume some of the responsibility, since it is partly government money that fuels technological progress in industry. Moreover, government should help because it can help—for example, by ensuring that grants and federally insured student loans are available to those who must retool in order to find new work. Government can also help by observing and recording trends in worker displacement and in job opportunities, and by providing this information to individuals so that they can make prudent decisions about their own further education and job searches.
In conclusion, while individuals should be prepared for future job changes, both government and industry shoulder obligations to provide training programs, funding and information that will help displaced workers successfully retool and find new employment.
V1现在快节奏的社会里，公司从年轻的员工身上能够得到更多benefit，compared to 年长的员工
V2 employer benefits more from the energy and new ideas of younger workers than from experience and wisdom of older workers.
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GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、