No.2 “It is unrealistic to expect individual nations to make, independently, the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy. International leadership and worldwide cooperation are essential if we expect to protect the world’s energy resources for future generations.”
1， 首先，虽然不愿意，但仍然要承认，自私几乎是天性。self consideration优先。在没有广泛的行动时，每一个国家都不愿意在自己作出牺牲的同时，其他国家没有行动。这样不公平，也不可能达到。这时，领导的作用很重要。安排各国家工作，协调各国家活动。有一个行动的指导作用。function as the leader of the group.
2， 而且，保护资源是全球的问题，指望单个国家作出牺牲是不够的。因为在全球化经济发展下，资源几乎是全球运转的。比如，美国会向中国进口木材等原料。所以需要合作。大的跨国公司在其中扮演重要的角色。比如，开发非洲的，有很多是欧洲的公司，跨国公司的举动会影响到很多国家的经济政策。nuclear weapons proliferation the problem of energy conservation transcends the national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will suffer.(sample上的句子)
3， 当然，这样是不够的，必须由各个国家充分地发挥主动的作用take positive action。因为资源是全人类的，每个国家都有责任并且都有必要。只有将统一领导与各国的积极性作用一起结合，才是最effective的方法。
The speaker asserts that an international effort is needed to preserve the world’s energy resources for future generations. While individual nations, like people, are at times willing to make voluntary sacrifices for the benefit of others, my view is that international coordination is nevertheless necessary in light ofthe strong propensity of nations to act selfishly, and because the problem is international in scope.
The main reason why an international effort is necessary is that, left to their own devices, individual nations, like people, will act according to their short-term motives and self-interest. The mere existence of military weapons indicates that self-interest and national survival are every nation’s prime drivers. And excessive consumption by industrialized nations of natural resources they know to be finite, when alternatives are at hand demonstrates that self-interest and short-sightedness extend to the use of energy resources as well. Furthermore, nations, like people, tend to rationalize their own self-serving policies and actions. Emerging nations might argue, for example, that they should be exempt fromenergy conservation because it is the industrialized nations who can better afford to make sacrifices and who use more resources in the first place.
Another reason why an international effort is required is that other problems of an international nature have also required global cooperation. For example, has each nation independently recognized the follyof nuclear weapons proliferation and voluntarily disarmed? No: only by way of an international effort, based largely on coercion of strong leaders against detractors, along with an appeal to self-interest, have we made some progress. By the same token, efforts of individual nations to thwart international drug trafficking have proven largely futile, because efforts have not been internationally based. Similarly, the problem of energy conservation transcends national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will ultimately suffer.
In conclusion, nations are made up of individuals who, when left unconstrained, tend to act in their own self-interest and with short-term motives. In light of how we have dealt, or not dealt, with other global problems, it appears that an international effort is needed to ensure the preservation of natural resources for future generations.
因为business 和 technology 的原因导致大部分人人们生活quality的提高，agree or disagree 。
“Because of recent advancements in business and technology, the overall quality of life in most societies has never been better than at the present time.”(111)
3， 进步是双刃剑要好好利用double-edged sword
1. progress in technology and business确实给人们的生活带来了considerable improvement. a, in the material life，提供了unprecedented diversity of service and products。supermarket：hundreds and thousands of products for people to choose;——三月份就可以吃到新鲜的草莓fresh strawberry b, 方便。高效率in the convenience of our own homes ：得到信息在网上，订餐order a dinner via internet; c, 人们的健康状况更好了，很多曾经可以威胁人生命的病现在只要简单的医疗手段就可以解决。
2. 但是，也不是说全都是好处，同时也有消极的影响。比如a, 人们spend more time on television and internet, 忽略了overlook the necessary communication in the family。造成了alienation between the family members. b, 再比如，fast communication on-line 剥夺了人们深入思考的可能。deprive people of deep and comprehensive thinking.
3. 使人们更加忙碌，疲劳。a, 人们的效率提高了，却被要求做更多的事了，实际上，人们更加忙碌了。比如the invention of laptops provide the possibility for people to continue their work after they leave the company. even on holiday. b, 新技术发展很快，demand changes every day. 这样accelerate the job obsolescence。造成人们suffer more pressure and anxiety.
The stated opinion is that recent advancements in business and technology have made overall quality of life better than ever. I disagree somewhat with the speaker’s viewpoint. For although such advancements have improved our lives in many respects, they have also diminished our quality of life in other ways.
Clearly, progress in business and technology has produced many benefits. For example, we can research problems and their solutions in minutes on the Internet; productivity is at an all-time high. And we can get more done in less time, leaving more time for hobbies, entertainment or other leisure activities. We can even mix a little work into our leisure time, by taking our laptops and cell phones on vacation. This way, we can stay one step ahead on projects at work, anticipating deadlines and staying in touch with co-workers and important clients.
In addition, leisure time has itself been enhanced by business and technology. Never before have we had so many spectacular diversions available, or so many leisure- and entertainment-related businesses vying for our attention. Moreover, we can obtain everything form airline tickets to a language course and holiday wardrobe via the Internet, in the convenience of our own homes.
Nevertheless, advances in business and technology have compromised our quality of life as well. For all the wonders of computers, they have spawned their own special illnesses and ailments, like severe eyestrain, back and neck problems, and carpal tunnel syndrome. And though we now have a world of information available in a keystroke, some of this information—like pornography, hate group diatribes and bomb-building instructions—are harming our society, especially our children. Even apparently harmless material, like direct mail advertising and telephone soliciting, is endlessly annoying. Finally, family life is sometimes a casualty of all this progress, with parents and children spending more time transfixed before their computer monitors and less time together.
In conclusion, advances in business and technology are a mixed blessing. For while we enjoy many benefits of this so-called progress, in many ways it has changed our lives for the worse.
原题：No one can possibly achieve any real and lasting success or ‘get rich’ in business by conforming to conventional practices or ways of thinking.(81)
1. A conformist can achieve any real success especially lasting success. Real and lasting success needs innovation and hard work. Just to conform does not make any sense. Through imitating others, one can only become an artisan-painter rather than an artist; without any innovation, a scientific worker can never be acknowledged as a scientist.
2. Likewise, no one can "get rich" in business merely conform to the existing practices.
3. However, what I mentioned above does not mean that conventions have no value at all. We should not only know the conventions but also have a deep insight of it, thus getting the information of the domain that indicates what kind of innovation can be made and how make.
1， Eternal truths will be neither true nor eternal unless they have fresh meaning for every new social situation. (Franklin Roosevelt, American president)
2， Growth and change are the law of all life. Yesterday's answers are inadequate for today's problems ----just as the solutions of today will not fill the needs of tomorrow. (Franklin Roosevelt, American president)
以上是两个很有用的名言!都是Franklin Roosevelt：As President Franklin Roosevelt said, “…”
1， 的确在很多情况下，merely!!遵循旧的方法，很难保持long-lasting success。在很多consumer-driven industries, 顾客们追求innovative and different products。比如，一个it is ridiculous for a abacus manufactory cannot compete with the calculator factory by producing better abaci. 必须创新，才能keep up with the development of the market.
2， 但是在有一些为了financial achievement的一些business principles. 比方说，a, 追求efficiency, 降低cost是永恒的需要——所以要追求新技术，创造不同的产品;b, 比如保持企业的reputation，吸引充足的consumer. ——制造质量好的产品。c, 企业作为社会的一分子，不能单纯地追求利益最大化，也应该carry some responsibility for the whole community。
Thesis sentence: Whether a conformist can achieve lasting success or "get rich" in business depends primarily on the type of business involved. Iconoclasts rise to the top in newer industries and in those where consumer demand is in constant flux. Conformists ultimately prevail, however, in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations.
View1: In consumer-driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and creativity are crucial to lasting success
Evidence: retail and media sectors. And in technology, companies that fail to break away from last year's paradigm are soon left behind by the competition.
View2: However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—lasting success and riches come not to nonconformists but rather to those who can deliver services most effectively within the confines of established practices, policies, and regulations.
Evidence: Citibank gain high reputation for its insistence in comprehensively considerate services
Whether a conformist can achieve lasting success or “get rich” in business depends primarily on the type of business involved. Iconoclasts rise to the top in newer industries and in those where consumer demand is in constant flux. Conformists ultimately prevail, however, in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations.
In consumer-driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and creativity are crucial to lasting success, in the retail and media sectors, for example, unconventional products and advertising are necessary to catch the attention of consumers and to keep up with the vagaries of consumer tastes. Those who take an iconoclastic approach tend to recognize emerging trends and to rise above their peers. For example, Ted Turner’s departure from the traditional format of the other television networks, and the responsiveness of Amazon.com to burgeoning Internet commerce, propelled these two giants to leadership positions in their industries. And in technology, where there are no conventional practices or ways of thinking to begin with, companies that fail to break away from last year’s paradigm are soon left behind by the competition.
However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—lasting success and riches come not to nonconformists but rather to those who can deliver services most effectively within the confines of established practices, policies, and regulations. Of course, a clever idea for structuring a deal, or a creative legal maneuver, may play a role in winning smaller battles along the way. But such tactics are those of conformists who are playing by the same ground rules as their peers; winners are just better at the game.
In conclusion, while non-conformists tend to be the wildly successful players in technology-driven and consumer-driven industries, traditionalists are the winners in system-driven industries pervaded by policy, regulation, and bureaucracy.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、