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宽扎节在“假期季”

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小编摘要:美国人一说到"假期季",都知道是包括基督教的圣诞节,犹太人的光明节和元旦节。但45年前,一个持续一周的节日第一次加入这个假期,那就是美国黑人的宽扎节。

 'Holiday Season' Includes Secular Kwanzaa



When Americans talk about the "holiday season," it’s understood that this includes the Christian Christmas, the Jewish Hanukkah, and the secular New Year's Day.

But 45 years ago, a weeklong celebration joined the parade when the African-American holiday of Kwanzaa was observed for the first time.
Kwanzaa begins the day after Christmas, and celebrates African culture. The word "Kwanzaa" comes from a phrase that means "first fruits" in the Swahili language, and the observance is based in part on the harvest celebrations of ancient Africa.

The seven-day festival was developed in its modern form during the black-nationalist movement of the 1960s by Maulana Karenga, an African-American scholar and activist. At first he called Kwanzaa an "alternative" to Christmas, which, he said, was a white-people's holiday.

But it soon became a mainstream celebration of family, community, and black Americans'African roots.

Kwanzaa festivities include stories, poetry, music, feasting and gift-giving. A candle is lit on each of the festival's nights to represent seven traditional values of African culture. Those principles are unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity, and faith.

Kwanzaa symbols include a decorative mat on which other items are placed. They often include corn, representing the harvest; a candelabra called a"kinara," holding seven candles; a communal cup; gifts; a poster of the seven principles; and a black, red, and green Pan-African flag.

Kwanzaa begins on Dec. 26, the day after Christmas, and ends on New Year's Day. Many American communities now include it in their recognition of the holidays of the season.

宽扎节在“假期季”

美国人一说到"假期季",都知道是包括基督教的圣诞节,犹太人的光明节和元旦节。

但45年前,一个持续一周的节日第一次加入这个假期,那就是美国黑人的宽扎节。

宽扎节在圣诞节后的第一天,是为了庆祝非洲文化。“Kwanzaa”一词来自斯瓦西里语的意为“第一批收获”的短语,它的庆祝仪式来自于古非洲丰收庆典的一部分。

持续七天的宽扎节在20世纪60年代,由非裔美国学者和社会活动家 Maulana Karenga在非洲名族主义运动中发展成现在的形式。最初,他说宽扎节是"另类"圣诞节,也是白人的节日。

但很快便成了一个家庭,社区及美国黑人的非洲情节的主流节日。

宽扎节的庆祝活动包括讲故事,诗歌朗诵,音乐交流,吃大餐和交换礼物。节日期间每个晚上点一支蜡烛,代表非洲的七个传统原则,分别是:团结,自决,集体工作及责任,合作经济,目标,创造和信仰。

宽扎节的象征包括一个装饰了的上面堆满东西的垫子,其中有玉米,代表丰收;叫做kinara的放七根烛台的烛台;公用杯,礼物,写着七条原则的海报和黑,红,绿相间的泛非旗。

款扎节是12月26日,圣诞节后第一天开始,直到元旦节结束。现在很多美国人都把它归入假期季中。

标签:voa standard
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2011-12-12 19:50 编辑:pliny
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