在线词典,在线翻译

“静坐”帮助民权裁决

所属:听力板块 阅读:3772 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:50年之前的星期六也就是1961年12月11日,美国最高法院撤销了因在路易斯安那进行民权游行而被捕的16个黑人大学生的罪行。

Historic Civil Rights Ruling Marks 50 Years
历史民权裁决50年


Fifty years ago this Sunday, on Dec. 11, 1961, the United States Supreme Court reversed the convictions of 16 black college students who had been arrested in a civil rights demonstration in Louisiana.

It was the high court's first decision regarding sit-in protests throughout the southern states.

The students had been arrested in the state capital, Baton Rouge, where they were refused service in two racially-segregated restaurants. After they defied police orders to get up from their seats and leave, they were charged with disturbing the peace.

In his opinion, Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote that the students had been peaceful and quiet and had not violated a law written to prevent a public disturbance. He wrote, “There is no evidence to support a finding that . . . the students' . . . behavior disturbed, or could have disturbed, the peace.”

Sit-ins had become a tactic of the civil rights movement in 1960, the year before the Supreme Court ruling, when other black students sat at the previously all-white lunch counters in the Woolworth and Kress variety stores in Greensboro, North Carolina.

They were denied service and ordered to leave. When they quietly refused, police were called, and the students were arrested on charges of trespassing and creating a public disturbance.

Sit-ins, or sit-downs, had been used by striking workers worldwide for years. But the idea was new to the civil rights movement. The sit-in in Greensboro inspired a wave of similar tactics throughout North Carolina and then other southern states. Many restaurants were desegregated in their aftermath.

Three years after the Supreme Court ruled sit-ins to be lawful, the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which included a public accommodations section that barred racial discrimination by hotels and restaurants.

The Woolworth store in Greensboro - where it all started - is now the International Civil Rights Center & Museum.

50年之前的星期六也就是1961年12月11日,美国最高法院撤销了因在路易斯安那进行民权游行而被捕的16个黑人大学生的罪行。

这是高等法院在南部各州关于静坐罢工抗议的首次决议。

学生在该州首府城市巴吞鲁日被捕,在那,两个种族分离的餐馆拒绝为黑人学生提供服务,在学生们不顾警方命令而从座位上起来离开之后,他们就被控告扰乱治安。

在审判长Earl Warren看来,他写道:学生是和平和安静的也没有违反破坏公共秩序的相关法律。“没有证据可以证明这些学生的行为扰乱了或可以扰乱治安。”

在最高法院裁决前一年,1960年,静坐变成了民权运动的手段之一,其他黑人学生坐到了之前全是白人的伍尔沃斯便餐馆以及北卡罗来纳州格林斯伯勒克雷斯百货店。

这些黑人被拒绝提供服务并被令离开。当他们安静地反抗时,警察就被叫来了,紧接着这些黑人学生被捕并被控告侵害公共秩序及扰乱公共治安。

静坐这一方式被全世界的罢工工人沿用了很多年,但是对于民权运动来说这一方式却是以前没用过的。格林斯伯勒的静坐在北卡罗来纳州和其他南方各州激发了一个类似静坐方式的抗议浪潮,许多餐馆在之后也废除了种族隔离。

在最高法院将静坐规定为合法方式的三年之后,美国国会通过了1964年民权法案,其中包括一个公共住宿部分方面的规定,即是酒店和饭店应禁止种族歧视。

所有故事的开始地格林斯伯勒的伍尔店现在已成为国际民权的中心和博物馆。

标签:voa standard
0
2011-12-08 20:10 编辑:pliny
分享到:
关注海词微博:
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有0条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章