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联合国称到2050年粮食产量必须增加7成

所属:听力板块 来源:voa 阅读:2167 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:联合国预计,世界粮食产量到2050年将必须增加70%。由于世界人口在数量和财富上的不断增长,每年将需要新增10亿吨粮食,以及2亿吨肉。

联合国称到2050年粮食产量必须增加7成

The United Nations estimates that world food production will have to increase by seventy percent by twenty-fifty. A world population growing in number and wealth will require one billion tons more grain each year, and two hundred million tons more meat.
联合国预计,世界粮食产量到2050年将必须增加70%。由于世界人口在数量和财富上的不断增长,每年将需要新增10亿吨粮食,以及2亿吨肉。

The Food and Agriculture Organization says those gains will have to happen largely on existing land through "sustainable intensification."
粮农组织表示,这些增产将必须主要通过“可持续集约化”在现有土地上实现。

Officials say the new report provides the first "global assessment of the state of the planet's land resources." It says large parts of all continents are experiencing damage. One-fourth of all land is described as "highly degraded." The greatest threats are losses of soil quality, biodiversity and water resources.
有关官员说,这份新的报告提供了首份“全球土地资源现状评估。”该报告称,地球上所有大陆的大部分地区正在遭受损害。1/4的土地被称为“高度退化。”最大的威胁是土壤质量、生物多样性和水资源方面的损失。

New agricultural methods and technology increased food production in many countries during the Green Revolution. Cropland increased by twelve percent from nineteen sixty-one to two thousand nine -- yet production grew by one hundred fifty percent.
“绿色革命”期间,新农业方法和技术让许多国家粮食产量增加。从1961年到2009年农田增加了12%,然而产量增加了150%。

But the new report warns that production rates have been slowing in many areas. In too many places, it says, practices that have increased production have also harmed the land and water. It calls for greater use of ways that can expand production while limiting damage to ecosystems.
但这份新报告警告称,许多地区的生产率已经放缓。报告称,在太多地区,增加产量的做法同时也损害了土地和水资源。报告呼吁加大使用可以扩大生产但同时能限制对生态系统破坏的增产方法。

One such practice might be the use of "fertilizer trees." These are fast-growing trees and shrubs whose leaves and roots help improve soil. A recent study found that about four hundred thousand farmers in southern Africa are using them.
这样的做法之一可能是“肥料树”的应用。这是一种速生的树木和灌木,它的叶子和根系有助于改善土壤。最近的一份研究发现,南非约40万农民正在使用这种肥料树。

The study appeared in the International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. Lead author Oluyede Ajayi is senior scientist at the World Agroforestry Center in Nairobi, Kenya.
这份报告发表在《国际农业可持续发展杂志》上。主要作者阿贾伊(Oluyede Ajayi)是肯尼亚内罗毕世界农林中心的资深科学家。

OLUYEDE AJAYI: "Basically these are trees that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert them into nitrates for fertilizer, for organic fertilizer, for the soil."
阿贾伊:“说穿了,这是一种可以把大气中的氮转换为可供土地使用的硝酸盐肥料的树。”

Farmers who planted fertilizer trees reported double the maize production of other farmers. In Zambia, the fertilized fields provided up to one hundred fourteen additional days of food.
据报告,种植肥料树的农民的玉米产品比其他农民高了一倍。在赞比亚,这种变肥沃的土地提供了多达可供114天使用的额外粮食。

Farmers say they need less rainwater if they use fertilizer trees. The trees reduce water runoff and soil erosion.
农民说,如果使用肥料树,他们只需要很少的雨水。这种树可以减少水分流失和土壤侵蚀。

Mr. Ajayi says the project began when scientists were trying to identify the main threats to food security.
阿贾伊先生说,该项目始于科学家试图确定粮食安全的主要威胁的时候。

OLUYEDE AJAYI: "We actually got started by about twenty years ago trying to diagnose, to look at, the chief problems within the country, within the region."
阿贾伊:“事实上我们大约在20年前就开始试图判断、审视该国该地区的首要问题。”

The farmers themselves designed and managed part of the testing in the field, and spread the word of their successes.
农民自行设计和管理了土地的部分测试,并传播了他们成功的消息

标签:voa special
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2011-11-29 17:50 编辑:pliny
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