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重设你的生物钟,做个早起的人

所属:生活杂谈 来源:www.yeeyan.org 阅读:3338 次 评论:1 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:睡眠专家说,经过一点训练,大多数人能重设自己的生物钟,做到早起。但这并不是强迫自己早点上床那么简单……

重设你的生物钟,做个早起的人


和地球上大多数生物一样,人类也有生物钟——一个周期约24小时的内置计时器。这个生物钟调节我们的睡眠模式,使之与自然界的昼夜节律同步。至少,在没有遗传、年龄或个人生活习惯干扰的情况下,是这样。虽然普通成年人每晚需要八小时睡眠时间,但也有“短睡眠者”,他们只需要睡很短的时间就够了;还有自然就会早起的人。研究显示,早起的人,往往来自早起的家庭。除了他们,其他的人就需要闹钟才能早起了。
Like most creatures on earth, humans come equipped with a circadian clock, a roughly 24-hour internal timer that keeps our sleep patterns in sync with our planet. At least until genetics, age and our personal habits get in the way. Even though the average adult needs eight hours of sleep per night, there are “shortsleepers,” who need far less, and morning people, who, research shows, often come from families of other morning people. Then there’s the rest of us, who rely on alarm clocks.For those who fantasize about greeting the dawn, there is hope. Sleep experts say that with a little discipline (well, actually, a lot of discipline), most people can reset their circadian clocks. But it’s not as simple as forcing yourself to go to bed earlier (you can’t make a wide-awake brain sleep). It requires inducing a sort of jet lag without leaving your time zone. And sticking it out until your body clock resets itself. And then not resetting it again.
那些盼望着能迎接黎明的人,还是有希望的。睡眠专家说,经过一点训练(嗯,实际上,是很多训练),大多数人能重设自己的生物钟。但这不止是强迫自己早点上床那么简单——大脑很兴奋的时候,你是没法睡着的。这种训练需要制造一种时差感,不过,你不需要为此穿越时区。坚持训练,直到你体内的生物钟自动重设,然后保持这种生物钟。
To start, move up your wake-up time by 20 minutes a day. If you regularly rise at 8 a.m., but really want to get moving at 6 a.m., set the alarm for 7:40 on Monday. The next day, set it for 7:20 and so on. Then, after you wake up, don’t linger in bed. Hit yourself with light. In theory, you’ll gradually get sleepy about 20 minutes earlier each night, and you can facilitate the transition by avoiding extra light exposure from computers or televisions as you near bedtime. (The light from a computer screen or an iPad has roughly the same effect as the sun.) “Light has a very privileged relationship with our brain,” says Dr. Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen, chief of sleep medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and assistant professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School. While most sensory information is “processed” by the thalamus before being sent on its way, Ellenbogen says, light goes directly to the circadian system.
首先,每天把起床时间提前20分钟。如果你正常在早上8点起床,但你想提前到6点,星期一把闹钟设在7点40,星期二设到7点20,依此类推。其次,每天醒来后,不要赖在床上,让自己暴露在光线下——拉开窗帘,打开灯。从理论上讲,每天晚上你会比前一天提前20分钟感觉到睡意,为了增强效果,临睡前应该避免电脑、电视等发出的亮光。(电脑屏幕、iPad 等发出的光线对生物钟的影响和太阳光差不多。)麻省总医院睡眠医学主任、哈佛医学院神经学助理教授杰弗里·艾利伯根说:“光线对我们的大脑有非常重要的影响。大多数感觉信号都经过丘脑处理才会发动到特定中枢,而光线刺激直接影响生物钟系统。
But recalibrating your inner clock requires more commitment — in the form of unwatched reruns or lost time with a spouse — than many people care to give. For some, it’s almost impossible. Very early risers and longtime night owls have a hard time ever changing, says David F. Dinges, chief of sleep and chronobiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine. Night-shift workers also struggle, he says, because they don’t get the environmental and social cues that help adjust the circadian clock. The most important of these cues, called zeitgebers (German for “time givers”) is sunlight. But a zeitgeber could also be a scrambled-egg breakfast or children coming home from school in the afternoon.
重设你的生物钟还需要做出很多人不愿给的承诺——如放弃某些电视节目、减少与伴侣相处的时间。对某些人来说,这根本就做不到。宾夕法尼亚佩雷尔曼医学院睡眠和时间生物学主任大卫·丁格斯说,起得很早的人和长时间的夜猫子很难突然改变。夜班工人也很困难,因为他们接收不到可以帮助他们调节生物钟的环境信号或社会信号。这些信号被称为“授时因子”,阳光是最重要的授时因子,但一份煎蛋早餐、孩子下午放学回家也可能是授时因子。
Besides computer screens, the biggest saboteur for an aspiring morning person is the weekend. Staying up later on Friday or sleeping in on Saturday sends the brain an entirely new set of scheduling priorities. By Monday, a 6 a.m. alarm will feel like 4 a.m. “If the old phase was entrained for a long time,” Dinges says, “the biology has a kind of memory of this.” In other words, he says, “it takes self-discipline.”
除了电脑屏幕,早起志向的最大破坏者就是周末了。星期五熬夜、星期六睡懒觉向大脑发送一套全新的时间节律。到了星期一,早上6点闹钟响的时候,你会感觉还在凌晨4点。丁格斯说:“如果旧的节律持续较长时间,生物钟就会记住。换句说话,生物钟会自我训练。”
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2011-11-28 23:23 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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