41. Portrayals of violence have proven commercially successful in television programs, movies, songs, and other forms of popular entertainment. Therefore, those who create popular entertainment should continue to incorporate violence into their products.
Popular entertainment is overly influenced by commercial interests. Superficiality, obscenity, and violence characterize films and televsion today because those qualities are commercially successful.
Clearly, most popular films and television shows are superficial and/or include a certain amount of violence or obscenity. Just as clearly, popularity leads to commercial success. But can we conclude that these productions are overly influenced by commercial interests? Perhaps not, since some popular films and television shows are neither superficial, obscene, nor violent. Closer scrutiny, however, reveals that most such productionsactually support, not disprove, the thesis that commercial interests dictate movie and television content. (有必要作这样的二次转折？)
One would-be (自称自许的)threat to the thesis can be found in lower-budget independent films, which tend to focus more on character development and topical social issues than on sensationalism. Recently, a few such films have supplanted Hollywood’s major studioproductions as top box-office (adj. 票房的) hits. Does this mean that profit potential no longer dictates the content of films? No; it simply suggests that the tastes and preferences of the movie-going public are shifting.A second ostensible challenge to the thesis can be found in companies such as Disney, whose productions continue to achieve great popularity and commercial success, without resort to an appeal to baser interests. Yet it is because these productions are commercially successful that they proliferate.
The only cogent challenge to the thesis is found in perennial television favorites such as “Nova,” a public television show that is neither commercially supported nor influenced. However, such shows are more in the nature of education than entertainment, and for every one program like “Nova” there are several equally popular—and highly superficial—programs.
With few exceptions, then, commercial success of certain films and television shows is no accidental byproduct of popularity; it is the intentional result of producers’ efforts to maximize profits.
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GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、