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中国:农村贫困人口已大幅减少

所属:财经报道 来源:cnn 阅读:4710 次 评论:2 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:面对基数庞大的贫困人口,中国政府无疑要打一场长久之战,期间自然胜负皆有,但是最后的赢家必是要有常抓不懈的决心和行之有效的策略。

导读:据中国国务院数据显示,10年间中国农村贫困人口已经从2000年的9420万大幅减少到了去年的2688万,与此同时,全国农村基本贫困线标准已经从865元上升为1274元。

这一巨大的减幅并不意外。近些年,中国经济的腾飞促进了包括农村贫困人口在内的全国人民收入的增长。同时一些大中城市工人供不应求也给农民工收入的增长创造了条件。

但是专家分析,中国未来的减贫效力将会有所减弱,要打赢这场战役,政府还需要积极完善社会保障制度,加大对人力资本的投资,其中包括教育和医疗。

China has reported a dramatic decrease in rural poverty over the last decade.

The number of rural citizens living below the national rural poverty line fell from 94.2 million people (10.2% of the rural population) in 2000, to 26.88 million (2.8%) last year, according to figures released Wednesday by China’s State Council.

The sharp drop occurred despite the fact the national rural poverty benchmark was raised from 865 yuan (US$136) in 2000 to 1,274 yuan (US$201) in 2010.

The Council’s white paper evaluates the government’s “Development-Oriented Poverty Reduction Programs,” a wide range of rural policies, such as agricultural subsidies, social security measures, and improved infrastructure for access to water, electricity, and transportation.

“Wage growth is the key to understanding this whole development in China,” said Duncan Innes-Ker, Beijing-based senior editor and economist at the Economist Intelligence Unit.

Ker said the dramatic decrease “doesn’t shock him at all” citing the “phenomenal scale of income growth,” whereby average annual incomes are growing at rates of 15-20%.

“Even the poor have been experiencing very strong growth in incomes…in the last five years, the supply of unskilled or semi-skilled labor is starting to fall short of demand, so wages for those labor classes have been growing very fast,” he added.

Previously, the supply of rural labor in cities greatly outstripped demand, keeping wages low.

“Urbanization and migration to Tier 1 and 2 cities are major reasons behind the reduced rate of rural poverty, as they result in increased annual incomes for rural citizens,” echoed Wang Sangui, professor at School of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development at Renmin University in Beijing.

Whilst wage growth certainly supports the reduction of poverty, it should be pointed that rural migration to the cities is not a government poverty reduction program, at least not directly.

Innes-Ker warned that “even if incomes are rising rapidly, the cost of living is also rising rapidly. I’m not sure if the government has adjusted its policies to take that into account.”

He said there is a suspicion amongst many in China that the Consumer Price Index is rising more slowly than the cost of living and that the rate of inflation is under-accounted in official figures.

Wang said the challenge of reducing China’s poverty rate will grow in the future, given the widening income disparity in China.

“Even though the economy is still growing, the efficiency of poverty alleviation is slowing down, and in the next 20-30 years, the government will not be able to make as significant progress in reducing poverty. Over the long-term, the most efficient way for China to eradicate poverty is to increase its social welfare policies and investment in human capital, for example, through education and medical care.”

标签:贫困 中国 减少
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2011-11-21 10:40 编辑:claudiaenglish
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