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2011年8月gmat阅读机经(至8.9)(七)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:3125 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

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16 population circle

16.1

还考了个gwd的原题,population circle,大家自行搜索
记得关键词是birds and parasite,under way rather than .... initiate(就是说捕食者和疾病的作用是在population减少后才开始,而不是由他们引起population 减少)

#16.2 

考古GWD-13-23-27

A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterflies, which exist as caterpillars during most of their life cycle) exhibit regularly recurring patterns of population growth and decline—such fluctuations in population are known as population cycles.  Although many different variables influence population levels, a regular pattern such as a population cycle seems to imply a dominant, driving force.  Identification of that driving force, however, has proved surprisingly elusive despite considerable research. The common approach of studying causes of population cycles by measuring the mortality caused by different agents, such as predatory birds or parasites, has been unproductive in the case of lepidoptera.  Moreover, population ecologists’ attempts to alter cycles by changing the caterpillars’ habitat and by reducing caterpillar (25) populations have not succeeded. In short, the evidence implies that these insect populations, if not self-regulating, may at least be regulated by an agent more intimately connected with the insect than are predatory birds or parasites. (30)

      Recent work suggests that this agent may be a virus.  For many years, viral disease had been reported in declining populations of caterpillars, but population ecologists had usually considered viral disease to have contributed to the decline once it was underway rather than to have initiated it. The recent work has been made possible by new techniques of molecular biology that allow viral DNA to be detected at low concentrations in the environment.  Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses are hypothesized to be the driving force behind population cycles in lepidoptera in part because the viruses themselves follow an infectious cycle in which, if protected from direct sun light, they may remain virulent for many years in the environment, embedded in durable crystals of polyhedrin protein. Once ingested by a caterpillar, the crystals dissolve, releasing the virus to infect the insect’s cells. Late in the course of the infection, millions of new virus particles are formed and enclosed in polyhedron crystals. These crystals reenter the environment after the insect dies and decomposes, thus becoming available to infect other caterpillars.

      One of the attractions of this hypothesis is its broad applicability. Remarkably, despite significant differences in habitat and behavior, many species of lepidoptera have population cycles of similar length, between eight and eleven years.  Nuclear polyhedrosis viral infection is one factor these disparate species share.

T-9-20:GWD-13-34:

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s conclusion in lines 25-30?   b

A.   New research reveals that the number of species of birds and parasites that prey on lepidoptera has dropped significantly in recent years.

B.    New experiments in which the habitats of lepidoptera are altered in previously untried ways result in the shortening of lepidoptera population cycles.

C.   Recent experiments have revealed that the nuclear polyhedrosis virus is present in a number of predators and parasites of lepidoptera.

D.   Differences among the habitats of lepidoptera species make it difficult to assess the effects of weather on lepidoptera population cycles.

E.    Viral disease is typically observed in a large proportion of the lepidoptera population.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------

It can be inferred from the passage that the mortality caused by agents such as predatory birds or parasites was measured in an attempt to    a

A.   develop an explanation for the existence of lepidoptera population cycles

B.    identify behavioral factors in lepidoptera that affect survival rates

C.   identify possible methods for controlling lepidoptera population growth

D.   provide evidence that lepidoptera populations are self-regulating

E.    determine the life stages of lepidoptera at which mortality rates are highest

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s conclusion in lines 25-30?   b

A.   New research reveals that the number of species of birds and parasites that prey on lepidoptera has dropped significantly in recent years.

B.    New experiments in which the habitats of lepidoptera are altered in previously untried ways result in the shortening of lepidoptera population cycles.

C.   Recent experiments have revealed that the nuclear polyhedrosis virus is present in a number of predators and parasites of lepidoptera.

D.   Differences among the habitats of lepidoptera species make it difficult to assess the effects of weather on lepidoptera population cycles.

E.    Viral disease is typically observed in a large proportion of the lepidoptera population.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------

It can be inferred from the passage that the mortality caused by agents such as predatory birds or parasites was measured in an attempt to    a

A.   develop an explanation for the existence of lepidoptera population cycles

B.    identify behavioral factors in lepidoptera that affect survival rates

C.   identify possible methods for controlling lepidoptera population growth

D.   provide evidence that lepidoptera populations are self-regulating

E.    determine the life stages of lepidoptera at which mortality rates are highest

--------------------------------------------------------------------

17. 改善质量的方法

17.1

講改善total quality的兩種方法:  先說 central activity       和什麼結果論(什麼resulting)
說前者是注重長期   後者是短期
第一段舉例某銀行  早期也是注重短期全面訓練為主也成功增加了customer loyalty  however到了後期也開始加入moral 和某訓練
第二段就在講結果論與xx論的區別
考主旨: 其中有選項是: describe兩種方法的優缺(strength and weaken)  -->我覺得不是...文中沒有此態度 但其他也...嗯..我分不出 

18

产品的保固

18.1

我也覺得在哪讀過...GWD??一屏半
第一段說: 作者主張有形產品的保固(guarantee) 和無形產品(intangible service)的guarantee  相較之下  有時無形的guarantee  會得到更大的利益第二段: 立場如下 1. 讓服務業的員工更有standards去遵循  2. 可以clarify什麼我忘了(細節題)moreover,  有形的產品有時更容易讓客戶去抱怨--> 完全是因為它有形好抱怨啊!!  (有題)  相較之下服務形的guarantee就難以抱怨-->因為它雲裡霧裡啊!!!  

第三段:  舉服務業不適用的情況:  unconditional  以航空公司為例  說沒辦法保證準點就別做這個保證..等等! 這類的uncondition都不適用前述
(細節題)
第四段: 忘了  不重要  很短

考細節題: 說作者為什麼認為無形服務保證更有效?
考細節題: 為什麼有形更好抱怨?  我選有concrete的選項
考細節題:  舉航空公司為什麼??

#18.2

考古 by bale

V1:
tangible 商品有保证书,intangible service没有。原因是人们一般认为后者的质量与提供service的人相关...还有几句想不起来了。 但是,作者认为,service也应该有保证书。
这样做有以下好处:1. (第一个原因跟员工有关,具体是激励员工还是什么,记不得了)   2.让消费者购买更放心(后面还有几个好处的,都是容易读的,记不得了)
但是这种做法有几个caution:如果不能对service的所有方面都提供保证的话,应该对可以确认的部分提供保证。比如,航空公司,对于航班的准时性无法完全控制,所以不应提供保证。(后面还有几点的,不记得了)
对于发展很好的公司,这种做法也有可能造成成本上升,但是长远来看,是有利的

V2:
一共3或者4段,有下拉条,我最长的一段
1.说Tangible与intangible的,略过,理解一下就行了,好像是没有题目
2.说企业管理的,最长的一段,前面说的是啥啥的好处,然后反对,用日本的例子,说日本的“golden false”,(golden这个词我肯定,false不肯定,但意思没错,可能是个同义词,我记不清楚,反正明白这个意思就能做题了。)注重失败,才能成功。(前面讲的好处应该是减少失败),记住日本这个是反例,这里有道题(为啥举例日本golden,答案里面就一个是说反例的,应该是c吧,我选的这个。)
3.service不可能的地方,机场,不可能保障on time(细节题,why?答案是改写吧?就是保障这玩意是个不靠谱的事,压根不可能,选c还是e,忘记了。)
另一个问题,tangible行业的manager抱怨啥?答案选那个相对于intangible行业说的,a抱怨productsproblems,不对。
其他记不住了。
这篇虽然长,但是不难。

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2011-11-17 15:31 编辑:cwf1986
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