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为什么有人爱看恐怖片?

所属:社会热点 作者:MELINDA BECK 来源:华尔街日报 阅读:9196 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:心理学家早就对为何有人为恐怖片感到陶醉进行了研究,并确立了着迷于过山车、赌博和极限运动者的寻求刺激型人格的特点。现在,神经学科学家正在寻找喜欢新鲜刺激和回避刺激的人在大脑的生物特征方面有哪些明显的差异

The young girl's face twists in terror. The stalker's shadow advances, ax held high. Your heart is pounding along with the music as you squirm in your theater seat. The silhouetted ax starts to descend …

年轻女孩的面庞因恐惧而发生扭曲。变态跟踪狂的影子逼近,斧头高举。你在影院座位上不安地扭动,心随着音乐怦怦直跳。屏幕上以影子形状表现出来的斧头劈了下去……

Is this your idea of a fun night at the movies?

你头脑中电影院美妙之夜是否就是这个样子的?

Psychologists have long theorized about why some people revel in scary movies and have identified 'thrill-seeking personalities' who are drawn to roller coasters, gambling and extreme sports. Many also gravitate toward adrenaline-charged jobs as day traders, test pilots, brain surgeons and bomb defusers, some studies find.

心理学家早就对为何有人为恐怖片感到陶醉进行了研究,并确立了着迷于过山车、赌博和极限运动者的寻求刺激型人格的特点。有研究发现,很多人还倾向于选择日内短线交易员、试飞员、脑外科医生和拆弹专家等刺激肾上腺素的工作。

Now, neuroscientists are finding distinct biological differences in the brains of people who love new sensations and those who shrink from them.

如今,神经学科学家正在寻找喜欢新鲜刺激和回避刺激的人在大脑的生物特征方面有哪些明显的差异。

'Humans have a unique situation where we will seek out things that scare us. We've got to ask, what could make this exposure rewarding?' says David Zald, a professor of psychiatry and psychology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tenn.

美国田纳西州范德比尔特大学(Vanderbilt University)精神病学及心理学教授萨尔德(David Zald)说,人类有一种特殊的心态,那就是寻求令自己害怕的东西。可是我们不禁会问,经历恐惧有什么好处?

One 2008 study by Dr. Zald and colleagues found key differences in how the brains of thrill-seekers and thrill-avoiders handle dopamine, the brain chemical of pleasure and reward. They had 34 volunteers answer a questionnaire assessing how much they liked novelty and then conducted brain scans. Those who avoided thrills had more autoreceptors for dopamine, which act like built-in brakes for the pleasure chemical. The thrill-seekers had few such receptors.

萨尔德及其同事在2008年所做的一项研究发现,寻求刺激者和回避刺激者的大脑对多巴胺的处理方式存在重大差异。多巴胺是大脑中产生的让人感受到愉悦和成就感的化学物质。在实验中,他们要求34名志愿者回答一份问卷上的问题,对他们喜欢新鲜刺激的程度进行评估,然后对他们进行脑部扫描。回避刺激的人多巴胺自受体的数量更多,而寻求刺激者的自受体的数量很少。所谓自受体,就好比是抑制愉悦感化学物质产生的内置制动器。

Evolutionary Roots

进化渊源

Dr. Zald speculates that this novelty-seeking tendency was important to evolution; humans who sought out new experiences might have been more likely to survive and pass on their genes.

萨尔德推断,这种寻求新鲜刺激的倾向对进化很重要;寻求新经历的人或许更有可能生存下来并把自己的基因传递下去。

And the tendency is often apparent in early childhood. Dr. Zald says he frequently hears from parents of thrill-seeking children asking his advice about how to satisfy them. (He recommends rock-climbing with close supervision.) 'Mostly, those parents are hanging on for dear life,' he says.

这种倾向通常在儿童时代早期就会表现出来。萨尔德说,他经常收到寻求刺激型儿童的父母的来信,询问他该如何满足自己的孩子。(他的建议是让孩子在严密监督下攀岩。)他说,大多数情况下,这些父母都会拼命抓住保护孩子的绳子。

There may be genetic differences as well. In 2008, researchers at the University of Bonn in Germany found that people with a particular variation of a gene known as Compt, which affects a brain chemical linked to anxiety, are more easily disturbed by frightening images. Those with two copies of the gene variation found it particularly hard to keep a lid on their anxiety.

基因上的差异也可能会有一定的影响。2008年,德国波恩大学(University of Bonn)研究人员发现,拥有一种名为Compt的特殊基因变体的人更容易对恐怖画面感到不安。这种基因变体会影响与焦虑有关的脑化学物质。拥有两份这种基因变体的人尤其难以掩饰自己的焦虑。

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2011-11-05 23:05 编辑:loveyystyle
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