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死磕真题--我的精读示范

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     一篇考研的真题,从做题到文章的全面分析和展示。看起来是有点痛苦的,而且还要反复直至熟 练,少不了痛心疾首捶胸顿足的时候。但如此死磕五篇,当小有所成;死磕十篇,应上了台阶;死磕 二十,必手到擒来。
    
    A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.
    
    It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such
    
    as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.(Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South
    
    Korea's LG Electronics in July.)
    
    Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market.America's machine-tool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.
    
    All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.
    
    How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a dued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride." American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government." It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity, says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as" a golden age of business management in the United States."
    
    51.The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱbecause_____ .
    
    [A]it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal
    
    [B]its domestic market was eight times larger than before
    
    [C]the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors
    
    [D]the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy
    
    52.The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the
    
    [A]TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market
    
    [B]semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises
    
    [C]machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions
    
    [D]auto industry had lost part of its domestic market
    
    53.What can be inferred from the passage?
    
    [A]It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pried.
    
    [B]Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.
    
    [C]The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.
    
    [D]A long history of success may pave the way for further development.
    
    54.The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the____ .
    
    [A]turning of the business cycle
    
    [B]restructuring of industry
    
    [C]improved business management
    
    [D]success in education
    
    解题第一步:读题干
    
    51.The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱbecause_ .
    
    题型:问事情原因,细节题,需定位句子
    
    给定信息:美国 achieved its predominance after World War II
    
    定位信息:World War II, because
    
    52.The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American_ .
    
    题型信息:问支撑观点的事实,例证题,当从观点后面找事实
    
    给定信息:1980s 美国 predominance 的失去,表现于相关的事实 定位信息:1980s
    
    53.What can be inferred from the passage? 题型信息:题干无具体信息,直接就文章提问,为判断题,当先搁置,最后直接看选项来做。 给定信息:无
    
    定位信息:无
    
    54.The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributedto the .
    
    题型信息:问原因,细节题,需定位给定信息:1990s 美国经济复苏,作者对其原因有自己的看法 定位信息:1990s
    
    题干综合:两道细节问原因,一道例证问事实,一道判断,尽量先根据其它题的解题过程和结果来解 以节省时间。
    
    由题干给定信息可知:文章讲到了二战后美国取得领先;1980s 失去了这种地位;1990s 经济又复苏了。
    
    解题第二步:读文章做选择
    
    51.根据定位信息找到首段二句,但本句中没有原因(看整个句式:当 A 时,有 B。其中 B 肯定不是原 因,而是结果。)。接着向下,直到最后一句,才由定语从句交代原因(定语从句可以而且常常交代 原因)。
    
    选项分析
    
    A.是非颠倒。他们为目标做了艰苦的努力。只有首段首句提到 effortless success。
    
    B.答非所问、偷换概念。原文也有市场,也是八倍以上。但一:不是所问事情的原因;二:原文是 market
    
    比 competitors 大, 选项是 domestic market 比 before 大。 C.同义表达,正确。战争摧毁了其潜在竞争对手的经济。原文是欧洲人和亚洲人,也即美国人的潜在 竞争对手。
    
    D.偷换概念。劳动力无与伦比的规模给了其经济以推动力。引人注目的是原文也有 unparalleled,但 搭配是 unparalleled economies of scale, 选项是 unparalleled size of workforce。有此一点, 就已死定。
    
    52.根据定位线索 1980s 找到二段第三句:美国人发现自己 XYZ。此处 XYZ 表达法比较麻烦,其实无关 紧要。题目不是问美国人会失去优势表现为什么事实吗?那先不得说美国人失去了优势?后面才是事 实。先出现了一句说 Some huge American industries,与各选项均无关系;下一句讲 TV,也不对; 再下一句讲 cars, 即选项 D 中的 auto, 为正确选项。
    
    选项分析:
    
    A.想当然:原文"只剩一家电视制造商"不必然意味着选项中"退回国内市场"。
    
    B.无中生有:原文 semiconductors 讲的是将成为 next casualty; 选项说"被外国公司兼并"。
    
    C. 偷换概念:原文 machine-tool industry 是 on the ropes, 字面义是"在绳子上",显然是比喻 义。本段讲各产业都是"不行了",此处亦不例外,不会冒出选项中的"自杀行为"。 D.同义表达:改变说话角度。原文"外国汽车进入国内市场"=选项"汽车业丧失部分国内市场"。
    
    53.留到最后来解。
    
    54.根据定位信息 1990s 找到第四段第二句。美国人回头可看到五年增长(即题目中所述事实),后 一句才交代原因。要读出言外之意:没几个美国人将此归为如此明显的原因如 X 和 Y。意思是作者认为 是这两个原因,而且很明显,但多数美国人却没有看到。A 为正确选项。
    
    选项分析:
    
    A.正确。
    
    B.貌合神离:引言中确有此说。但此引言是用来说明前文 blind pride(盲目骄傲),是作者所批判的 观点。请参照本段"段落解剖"。
    
    C.同 B。
    
    D.无中生有:从未提及。
    
    回头再做 53.尽量利用已解题和已读信息解题。
    
    A.画蛇添足:解第 54 题时第四段有 blind pride 与 lack of confidence,但从未说 human nature。
    
    B.未读到相关信息,等待确认正误。
    
    C.依 54 答案,可知 international cooperation 并非复苏原因。
    
    D.暗渡陈仓:首段首句 a history of long and effortless success,被偷换成 a long history of success。Long 修饰对象被偷换,已经死定。
    
    故 B 为正确选项。
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2011-11-08 11:48 编辑:甯老师
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