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历年真题经典长难句解析及翻译

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     今天距2012考研还有不到80天的时间,对于参加考研的考生来说,距离考试的时间又临近了,到了真正关键的冲刺时刻。英语长难句一直是大家英语备考的中难点。
    
    新东方在线网络课堂考研英语辅导团队,现将历年考试中的经典长难句进行了汇总、分析,希望广大考生能从这些总结、归纳中吸引考试中的精华内容,提高复习效率。
    
    句子一:
    
    Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
    
    句子分析:
    
    第一、句子可以拆分为三段:
    
    Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant
    
    respect, / extremists of this kind think / that animals lie outside the area of
    
    moral choice.
    
    第二、句子的结构:
    
    1)主干结构是extremists of this kind think that… 其中that引导宾语从句,Arguing from.。.是现在分词短语作状语。
    
    2) the view和后面的从句that.。.是同位语关系
    
    第三、词的处理:
    
    Arguing from the view 从……观点看,持……观点
    
    different from... 与……不同
    
    in every relevant respect 在各相关方面
    
    extremists 极端主义者,持极端观点的人
    
    lie outside the area of moral choice 不在道德问题范围,与道德取舍无关
    
    参考译文:
    
    这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。
    
    句子二:
    
    But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to looks into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.
    
    句子分析:
    
    第一、句子可以拆分为三段:
    
    But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to looks into the past, / for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures / that existed 15 billion years ago.
    
    第二、句子主干结构是:主句+ for +原因状语从句。
    
    主句是强调句it was... that.。.被强调部分the farthest是后面句子的状语,可以理解为scientists had been able to look the farthest into the past
    
    2) for.。.引导的原因状语从句是一个系表结构,what they were seeing是从句中的主语,that引导定语从句修饰the patterns and structures。
    
    第三、词的处理:
    
    even more important 更为重要的是
    
    he patterns and structures (宇宙云的)形状和结构
    
    15 billion years ago 150亿年前
    
    参考译文:
    
    更为重要的是,这是科学家们所能观测到的最遥远的过去的景象,因为他们看到的是150亿年前宇宙云的形状和结构。
    
    句子三:
    
    Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true。
    
    句子分析:
    
    第一、句子可以拆分为三段:
    
    Odd though it sounds, / cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, / and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true。
    
    第二、句子的结构:
    
    1)主干结构是cosmic inflation is a consequence, and many astrophysicists have been convinced that it is true。其中Odd though it sounds是倒装的让步状语从句,等于 though it sounds odd
    
    2) consequence前后有多重定语。
    
    3) and many astrophysicists have been convinced为被动结构。
    
    4) that it is true是宾语从句。
    
    第三、词的处理:
    
    cosmic inflation 宇宙膨胀说
    
    scientifically plausible consequence 科学上可信的推论
    
    in elementary-particle physics 基本粒子物理学
    
    convinced 被说服,相信
    
    for the better part of a decade 七八年来
    
    参考译文:
    
    宇宙膨胀说虽然听似奇特,但它是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的理论在科学上看来可信的推论。许多天体物理学家七八年来一直认为这一论说是正确的。
    
    句子四:
    
    Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.
    
    句子分析:
    
    第一、句子可以拆分为三段:
    
    Interest in historical methods has arisen / less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline / and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.
    
    第二、句子的结构
    
    1)主干结构是一个简单句:Interest has arisen less through ...and more from.。.
    
    2)并列状语less through ...and more from的翻译是关键,through和from意思完全相同,表示原因,直译为:比较少的是因为……,更多的原因是……
    
    3)challenge后面的不定式短语to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline是它的定语,直译对历史作为一门学科的正确性提出异议,internal quarrels后面的介词短语among historians themselves作quarrels的定语。
    
    第三、词的处理:
    
    Interest in historical methods  对历史方法的关注(兴趣)
    
    arisen  来自于,产生于challenge质疑,挑战
    
    validity  真实性,正确性as an intellectual discipline作为一门学问(一个学科领域)
    
    internal quarrels  内部意见不统一,内部分歧
    
    参考译文:
    
    人们之所以关注历史研究的方法论,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。
    
    句子五:
    
    During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional
    
    methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study。
    
    句子分析:
    
    第一、句子可以拆分为三段:
    
    During this transfer, / traditional historical methods were augmented / by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.
    
    第二、句子的结构:
    
    1)主干结构是一个被动语态的简单句:...methods were augmented by.。.
    
    2)过去分词短语designed to.。.作句子宾语methodologies的定语。
    
    第三、词的处理:
    
    transfer  转变
    
    augmented  充实,补充
    
    additional methodologies  新方法  designed to用来
    
    interpret  阐释,解释,说明
    
    the new forms of evidence  新的证据形式,根据上下文意思引申为在历史学研究中的新史料。
    
    参考译文:
    
    在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。
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2011-10-24 09:59 编辑:甯老师
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