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小编摘要:雅思阅读需要平时的多练。多阅读,培养语感才能做到临场发挥正常,或者超常。

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on the Reading Passage below.

    
Jumping spiders

Peter   Aldhons examines how Portia spiders catch their prey

A  For a stalking predator, the element of surprise is   crucial. And for jumping spiders that sneak onto other spiders' webs to prey   on their owners, it can be the difference between having lunch and becoming   it. Now zoologists have discovered the secret of these spiders' tactics:   creeping forward when their prey's web is vibrating.


B The fifteen known species of   Portia jumping spiders are relatively small, with adults being about two   centimeters long (that's smaller than the cap on most pens). They habitually   stay in the webs of other spiders, and in an area of these webs that is as   out-of-the-way as possible. Portia spiders live mostly in tropical forests,   where the climate is hot and humid. They hunt a range of other spiders, some   of which could easily turn the tables on them. 'They will attack something   about twice their own size if they are really hungry,' says Stimson Wilcox of   Binghamton University in New York State. Wilcox and his colleague,   Kristen Gentile of the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, wanted to find out how Portia   spiders keep the upper hand.

C All jumping spiders have large   eyes that look like binocular lenses, and they function pretty much the same   way. Most jumping spiders locate their prey visually, and then jump and   capture from one centimeter to over ten centimeters away. Only a few species   of jumping spiders invade the webs of other spiders, and the Portia spider is   among them. Jumping spiders, including Portia spiders, prey on insects and   other arthropods by stalking. Sometimes the spiders lure their victims by   vibrating the web to mimic the struggles of a trapped insect. But many   web-weaving spiders appear to be wise to these tricks, so stalking is often a   better strategy. Sometimes, the researchers found, Portia spiders take   advantage of the vibrations created in the web by a gentle breeze. But if   necessary, they will make their own vibrations.

D The researchers allowed various   prey spiders to spin webs in the laboratory and then introduced Portia   spiders. To simulate the shaking effect of a breeze the zoologists used   either a model aircraft propeller or attached a tiny magnet to the centre of   the web which could be vibrated by applying a varying electrical field. The   researchers noticed that the stalking Portia spiders moved more when the webs   were shaking than when they were stilt and they were more likely to capture   their prey during tests in which the webs were penorncally shaken than in   those where the webs were undisturbed. If the spiders were placed onto   unoccupied webs, they would make no attempt to change their movements.

E It is the Portia spider's   tactic of making its victims' webs shake that has most intrigued the   researchers, They noticed that the spiders would sometimes shake their   quarry's web violently, then creep forwards up to five millimeters before the   vibrations died down. 'They'd make a big pluck with one of their hind legs,'   says Wilcox. These twangs were much more powerful than the gentler vibrations   Portia spiders use to mimic a trapped insect, and the researchers were   initially surprised that the prey spiders did not respond to them in any way.   But they have since discovered that the violent twanging produces a pattern   of vibrations that match those caused by a twig falling onto the web.

F Other predators make use of   natural 'smokescreens' or disguises to hide from their prey: lions hunting at   night, for example, move in on their prey when clouds obscure the moon. 'But   this is the first example of an animal making its own smokescreen that we   know of,' says Wilcox. 'Portia spiders are clearly intelligent and they often   learn from their prey as they are trying to capture it. They do this by   making different signals on the web of their prey until the prey spider makes   a movement. In general, Portia spiders adjust their stalking strategy   according to their prey and what the prey is doing. Thus, Portia spiders use   trial-and-error learning in stalking. Sometimes they will even take an   indirect route to reach a prey spider they can see from a distance. This can   sometimes take one to two hours following a predetermined route. When it does   this, the Portia spider is actually solving problems and thinking ahead about   its actions.'


Questions 1-9

The Reading Passage has six paragraphs labelled A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-F next to Questions 1-9.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

1.       the reaction of the Portia spider's prey to strong web vibrations
2.      a description of how the researchers set up their experiment
3.      a comparison between Portia spiders and another animal species
4.      an explanation of how the researchers mimicked natural conditions
5.      a comparison between Portia spiders and their prey
6.      the reason why concealment is important to Portia spiders
7.      a description of the Portia spider's habitat
8.      the number of species of Portia spiders
9.      an example of the Portia spider's cleverness

Questions 10-13
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

10 In their laboratory experiments, the researchers found that the Portia spiders moved most when the web was

A vibrating.
B motionless.
C undisturbed.
D unoccupied.

11 What discovery did the researchers make about Portia spiders?

A  They make very strong vibrations with one leg.
B  They move 5 mm at a time on a still web.
C  They move slowly when vibrations stop.
D  They use energetic vibrations to mimic a trapped insect.

12 Portia spiders are the only known animal to

A use the weather to disguise themselves.
B mimic other prey-eating animals.
C create their own smokescreen.
D stalk using 'trial and error'.

13 The Portia spider demonstrates 'thinking ahead' when it

A chooses prey that is a short distance away.
B takes a longer route to reach its prey.
C reaches its prey in a short time.
D solves the problem of locating its prey.
 
(答案我用白色了,请全选就可以看到答案了)
  
Answers: 1 – 9
1 E    2 D    3 F    4D    5B    6A    7 B    8B    9 F
Multiple choice: 10 A    11   A    12 C    13D
标签:雅思 IELTS
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2011-10-22 09:43 编辑:htt0724
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