These stunning images reveal a remarkable glimpse of life at the ends of the earth.
Our melting polar worlds have been captured in breathtaking pictures by the BBC for this autumn's landmark natural history series Frozen Planet.
It is the last chance to see the world's greatest wildernesses before they change forever, according to narrator Sir David Attenborough.
Target: A sea lion chases a Gentoo penguin onto land - both are like fish out of water and the sea lion struggles to make a kill
Smoking: An early-morning view of Mt Erebus, Antarctica's only continuously active volcano. The aerial crew waited eight weeks to get a clear view of the top of the volcano which was extremely treacherous to fly around
Blue lagoon: Aerial shot of a sapphire blue meltwater lake on Greenland which formed in a matter of days, but several weeks later drained into the ice sheet in a matter of hours
'The pictures captured behaviour and phenomena that had never before been recorded,' said Sir David, 85. 'Those pictures will become increasingly valuable as time passes.
'For this may well prove to be our last chance to record, in their full splendour, these astonishing wonderlands that have existed for hundreds of thousands of years before humans reached them and which now, within a century, may change beyond recognition.'
The pictures are published in a book - the first to cover both the Arctic and Antarctic - to accompany the epic seven-part series from the team that produced Blue Planet and Planet Earth which were seen by 12 million viewers in the UK and 80 million worldwide.
P-p-p-perishing: King penguins silhouetted at dawn on the island of South Georgia in the Falklands. They are the second largest species of penguin, weighing up to 35lbs
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