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埃及《亡灵书》:通往永生之旅

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小编摘要:千百年来,人类不断在问一个问题:我们死后会怎样?古埃及人认为他们找到了答案......

导读:

千百年来,人类不断在问一个问题:我们死后会怎样?古埃及人认为他们找到了答案——被制成木乃伊之后,他们要踏上一次危机四伏的漫长旅途,最终到达永恒的极乐世界。但要到达那里,他们需要一本写有咒语的指南,那就是埃及的《亡灵书》(或称《死亡之书》、《死者之书》)。

木乃伊


Ancient Egypt was a land of mysteries, and one was the collection of prayers, spells, incantations, and instructions known as the Book of the Dead.

古埃及是一片神秘之地,这里有一件神秘之物,它就是集祈祷文、符咒、咒语念诵和指导说明于一体的《亡灵书》。

埃及《亡灵书》:通往永生之旅  For one thing, the Book of the Dead was not in fact a book, since the Egyptians didn't have book binding. It was a papyrus scroll that was placed in the sarcophagus with the deceased, and texts from it were also often written on the walls of the tomb and inside the sarcophagus.

首先,《亡灵书》不是指某一本书,因为当时的埃及人没有书籍装帧技术。它是一份随亡者一同放入石棺内的纸莎草卷轴,上面的文字往往也会写在坟墓的墙壁上和石棺内。

For another, the Egyptians themselves didn't call the collection the Book of the Dead. That was a name given by German Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius in 1842 when he published some of the texts.

再者,埃及人不把它称作《亡灵书》。这个名字是1842年德国埃及学家卡尔·理查德·莱普修斯在发表其中一些文字时创造的。

The Egyptians believed that when a person died, he still had a lot of work to do. What? Are you kidding? He had to make a long journey to paradise and encounter a series of ordeals on the way. The Book of the Dead contained the prayers and spells—and instructions for how to use them—that he would need on the trip; a sort of afterlife travel guide.

埃及人认为人死后还有很多事情要做。什么?你是在开玩笑吧?他要踏上通往天堂的漫长旅途,期间会遇到一系列严酷考验。《亡灵书》包含了他一路上需要用到的祈祷文和咒语,以及它们的操作方法;相当于一本死后旅行指南。

The Egyptians believed that if the person made it to the afterlife, his soul could come out of the tomb during the day and, in essence, live again. He could enjoy all the same things he had in life. The Egyptians had a complicated view of the soul. Every person had a ba, which was like his personality, and a ka, which was his life force. The ba was dependent on the physical body, and that's why Egyptians were mummified. After all the proper funeral rituals and after the person made it to paradise, the ba and the ka were united to become the akh, or the completed soul. The akh was a blessed spirit that could then live the good life for eternity.

埃及人相信,如果一个人成功到达来生,他的灵魂会在日间走出坟墓,实质上就是重生。他可以享受生前拥有的一切。埃及人对灵魂的理解十分复杂。每个人都有“巴”(类似于个性)和“卡”(生命力)。“巴”依赖于肉身,所以埃及人要制作木乃伊。当正确完成所有葬礼仪式、人到达天堂之后,“巴”和“卡”会结合在一起,成为“阿赫”,即完整的灵魂。“阿赫”即为神所佑的灵魂,从此可以永远过上美好的生活。

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2011-10-10 11:38 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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