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2011年7月gmat阅读机经(至7.28)(六)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:2738 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

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1.2.5 音乐

Another one about investigation on jazz music, second paragraph was about the guy Dr. Darke? (detail quesion)

(短)讲什么musician的 还提到了什么jazz的

音乐不能和其他manufacture比,因为其他的manufacture这些年都随着生产力的增加而增加,这样就抵消了通货膨胀的影响,但是音乐家的事业没有生产力的提高,举了一个例子是,一个45分钟的音乐会不大可能有什么生产力的提高,(有题目这个例子说明了什么)最后一段最后一句说其实也有possible音乐也可以提高生产力。

第一段,JAZZ和人的AESTHETICS之间有点什么关系,一个人说performing art 不像menufacturing 可以通过成本cost来获得收益 比如过你要演奏贝多芬的一个交响曲总得需要那么多人 说这两年performing art的收益赶不上inflation rate.. 云云..
第二段就是一个人反驳他的观点 不记得怎么反驳的了 on the other hand, 又有一个人说从第一个人的evidence里能得出一个跟他的结论有重叠的部分 (但这第三个人总体上还是同意第二个人的 有考题问他俩都同意啥),拿人做个JAZZ和AESTHETICS的试验,然后又比较了早先用classical music 和AESTHETICS试验的结果,说了一下它们的区别(此处有题)、还有道主旨题

【第一段说A说art performing不能通过科技降低成本 productivity也没办法改变 举了个演奏45分钟某某音乐的例子(四十五分钟那里高亮问作用),所以越来越赔钱。
B反对A,说政府扶植啊,人们的关注增加啊什么的,总之是可以赚到钱的。又有个C做了一个study,说什么东西上升了26%,他部分同意A的观点,但是又说productivity是可以上升的。有题目问A和C都同意什么】

【这篇真的是看了我云里雾里啊,而且时间都来不及了,乱来了。。。第一段大概是讲一个人的学说,好像叫什么 Bxxx (人名)'s disease,擦,其实讲的是production rate of arts performance stays unchanged compared to production rate of manufacturing,然后就扯到cost 跟inflation的东西,真没看明白啊。第二段讲另外一个人有不同的见解,也讲了inflation的问题,但还是没看懂他在说什么,结尾来了个例子说有个歌舞团去年在chicago的表演次数多了,所以说什么production rate of art performance can be increased.. bla bla bla....
我翻译成我自己理解的白话文哦:大概说由于艺术表演的性质,它的产出率提高不了,然后通货膨胀客观存在,导致艺术表演的成本上升,怎木办呢?什么什么的云云。然后另一个鸟人说其实也不完全这样,提出他的一套理论,基本是反驳的啦。】

1.2.6

生态圈经济
GWD原题, 有一道问主旨 记不得选项了 还有一道问vertical archipelago is different from compressed vertical in that... 不记得选项了 我好像定位在文章的最后一句话了

题目记得很清楚四道,第一题也是GWD原题,就是问下面关于垂直经济哪个是对的,这题答案选被印加人使用这个答案。第二题是一个很长的划线题,对第二段的第二句话,也就是什么大部分农作物生产在600inchi,但是900inch高地仅一小部分这句话高亮。问这句什么作用。到时大家仔细看看啊。LZ答案不说了。考分太低只有误导作用。第三题是问本文的主旨。第四个题目是,忘记了。

GWD

原题

28.    GWD-9-Q4 -Q7印加高地居民的生态农垦圈
By the sixteenth century, the Incas                16世纪时,南美印加人统治着沿着太
of South America ruled an empire that             平洋延伸,从今天的厄瓜多尔到智利
extended along the Pacific coast and               中部的安第斯高地的一个帝国。
Line  Andean highlands from what is now
(5)    Ecuador to central Chile. While most        虽然大部分印加人是自给自足的农
of the Incas were self-sufficient                    业户,居住于高地盆地9000尺以
agriculturists, the inhabitants of the                  上的人民可种的农作物是有限的。
highland basins above 9,000 feet were
constrained by the kinds of crops they
(10)   could cultivate. Whereas 95 percent         虽然95%的安第斯首要食物可以在
of the principal Andean food crops can              3000尺以下垦殖,只有20%可以在
be cultivated below 3,000 feet, only                 9000尺以上存活。
20 percent reproduce readily above
9,000 feet. Given this unequal                     面对不平衡的资源分配,高地印加
(15)   resource distribution, highland Incas         人为了扩充他们食物的种类和数量,
needed access to the products of                   需要得到低暖地区的产品。
lower, warmer climatic zones in order
to enlarge the variety and quantity of
their foodstuffs. In most of the prein-               在大部分的前工业化社会,资源配置
(20)   dustrial world, the problem of different       差异的问题是通过终端消费者极难
resource distribution was resolved by              控制的远距离贸易网络解决的。
long-distance trade networks over
which the end consumer exercised
little control. Although the peoples                  虽然安第斯高地的人民参与这种网
(25)   of the Andean highlands participated         络,他们还是主要依靠维护尽量多
in such networks, they relied primarily              的生态区域里的自治生产力量。
on the maintenance of autonomous
production forces in as many ecological
zones as possible. The                              区域所产的商品被提炼加工运送,
(30)   commodities produced in these               这些全部由一个单独团体的成员
zones were extracted, processed,                    去做。
and transported entirely by members
of a single group.提出问题及解决方案

This strategy of direct access                        这种由一个单独团体直接掌握最
(35)   to a maximum number of ecological          多的生态区域的策略叫做垂直经
zones by a single group is called                     济。
vertical economy. Even today,                       时至今天,你可以看到安第斯社区
one can see Andean communities                   同时保持着12000尺以上牧场,
maintaining use rights simultaneously                9000尺以上盆地薯田,及6000尺
(40)   to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to         以下温暖农地的使用权力。
potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet,
and to plots of warm-land crops in
regions below 6,000 feet. This                       这个策略有两个主要变量。
strategy has two principal variations.
(45)   The first is “compressed verticality,”         第一个叫扁平垂直,即一个独立村
in which a single village resides in                   庄住在容易控制附近生态区的地方。
a location that permits easy access
to closely located ecological zones.
Different crop zones or pasturelands                 不同的农业区域或牧场与父系社区
(50)   are located within a few days walk of         都近在咫尺。
the parent community. Community                  社区成员可能临时住在其中一个低
members may reside temporarily                    的区域以管理家里无法获得的产品
in one of the lower zones to manage                 的提炼。
the extraction of products unavailable
(55)   in the homeland. In the second variation,      第二个叫垂直群岛,即村庄在广泛
called the “vertical archipelago,”                    分布的地方开发资源,构建一系列
the village exploits resources in widely                独立的生产“岛屿”。
dispersed locations, constituting a
series of independent production
(60)  “islands.” In certain pre-Columbian             在某些前哥伦比亚印加社会中,各
Inca societies, groups were sent from                团体离开家园,被派往遥远的热带
the home territory to establish permanent            森林或沿岸地区建立永久卫星社区
satellite communities or colonies                     或殖民地。
in distant tropical forests or coastal
(65)   locations. There the colonists grew           在那里这些殖民家种植农作物,
crops and extracted products for their               提取自用和运给高海拔同胞的产品。
own use and for transshipment back
to their high-altitude compatriots.
In contrast to the compressed                     相对于扁平垂直系统,群岛系统里
(70)   verticality system, in this system,             是商品而非人在群岛里流通。
commodities rather than people
circulated through the archipelago.具体介绍解决方案
问题解决 逻辑简图:
1P: 16C, Incas lived above 9000feet, whereas,.. unequal resources distribution… problem resolved by trade network exercised little control. Although, relied on primarily….  
2P: strategy called vertical economy. Two principle variations: compressed verticality(temporarily); vertical archipelago(permanent).. In contrast to….
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GWD-9-Q4:
According to the passage, which of the following is true about the preindustrial long distance trade networks mentioned in line 22 ?

A. They were not used extensively in most of the preindustrial world.反
B. They were used to some extent by the people of the Andean highlands.
In most of the preindustrial world, the problem of different resource distribution was resolved by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control.
C. They were not an effective means of solving the problem of different resource distribution.文中没有,自己推出来的
D. They necessitated the establishment of permanent satellite communities in widely dispersed locations.
E. They were useful only for the transportation of products from warm climatic zones.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GWD-9-Q5:
According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities
While most of the Incas were self-sufficient agriculturists,
they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible.
第二段论述这个strategy的两种形式都是e中所指的
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- GWD-9-Q6:
The passage suggests that as a way of addressing the problem of different resource distribution in the preindustrial world, the practice of vertical economy differed from the use of long-distance trade networks in that vertical economy allowed

A. commodities to reach the end consumer faster
B. a wide variety of agricultural goods to reach the end consumer
C. a single group to maintain control over the production process
D. greater access to commodities from lower, warmer climatic zones
E. greater use of self-sufficient agricultural techniques
This strategy of direct access to a maximum number of ecological zones by a single group is called vertical economy.
Given this unequal resource distribution, highland Incas needed access to the products of lower, warmer climatic zones in order to enlarge the variety and quantity of their foodstuffs. In most of the preindustrial world, the problem of different resource distribution was resolved by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control. Although the peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks, they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible. The commodities produced in these zones were extracted, processed, and transported entirely by members of a single group.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GWD-9-Q7:
The passage suggests that for an Andean highland village attempting to resolve the problem of unequal resource distribution, the strategy known as compressed verticality would probably be inappropriate for which of the following situations?

A. The village’s location is such that it is difficult for the village to participate in long-distance trade networks.
B. The village does not have the resources to establish permanent satellite communities in production zones beyond the home community.
C. The warm-land crop regions nearest to the village are all below 6,000 feet.
D. The location of the village does not provide ready access to an adequate variety of ecological zones.
E. The nearest crop production zones are located below the village, while the nearest pasturelands are located above the village.
The first is “compressed verticality,” in which a single village resides in a location that permits easy access to closely located ecological zones.

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2011-10-16 16:51 编辑:cwf1986
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