Painting， the execution of forms and shapes on a surface by means of pigment， has been continuously practiced by humans for some 20，000 years. Together with other activities （1）_____ ritualistic in origin but have come to be designated as artistic （such as music or dance）， painting was one of the earliest ways in which man （2）_____ to express his own personality and his （3）_____ understanding of an existence beyond the material world. （4）_____ music and dance， however， examples of early forms of painting have survived to the present day. The modern eye can derive aesthetic as well as antiquarian satisfaction （5）_____ the 15，000-year-old cave murals of Lascaux —— some examples （6）_____ to the considerable powers of draftsmanship of these early artists. And painting， like other arts， exhibits universal qualities that （7）_____ for viewers of all nations and civilizations to understand and appreciate.
The major （8）_____ examples of early painting anywhere in the world are found in Western Europe and the Soviet Union. But some 5，000 years ago， the areas in which important paintings were executed （9）_____ to the eastern Mediterranean Sea and neighboring regions. （10）_____， Western shared a European cultural tradition —— the Middle East and Mediterranean Basin and， later， the countries of the New World.
Western painting is in general distinguished by its concentration （11）_____ the representation of the human （12）_____， whether in the heroic context of antiquity or the religious context of the early Christian and medieval world. The Renaissance （13）_____ this tradition through a （14）_____ examination of the natural world and an investigation of balance， harmony， and perspective in the visible world， linking painting （15）_____ the developing sciences of anatomy and optics. The first real （16）_____ from figurative painting came with the growth of landscape painting in the 17th and 18th centuries. The landscape and figurative traditions developed together in the 19th century in an atmosphere that was increasingly （17）_____ “painterly” qualities of the （18）_____ of light and color and the expressive qualities of paint handling. In the 20th century these interests （19）_____ to the development of a third major tradition in Western painting， abstract painting， which sought to （20）_____ and express the true nature of paint and painting through action and form.
1.A. may have been B. that may have C. may have D. that may have been
2. A. seek B. sought C. seek for D. sought for
3. A. emerging B. emergency C. merging D. merger
4. A. As B. Unlike C. Like D. Since
5. A. from B. to C. into D. for
6. A. ratify B. testify C. certify D. gratify
7. A. make easy B. make it easy C. make hard D. make it hard
8. A. extinct B. extent C. extant D. exterior
9. A. had shifted B. have shifted C. shifting D. shifted
10. A. Nevertheless B. Moreover C. However D. Therefore
11. A. to B. in C. on D. for
12. A. figure B. shape C. shadow D. form
13. A. extracted B. extended C. extorted D. extruded
14. A. closing B. close C. closed D. closure
15. A. on B. for C. in D. to
16. A. break B. breakage C. breakdown D. breaking
17. A. concerned with B. concerning C. concerning with D. concerned for
18. A. reaction B. action C. interaction D. relation
19. A. distributed B. attributed C. contributed D. construed
20.A. discover B. uncover C. recover D. cover