32. No.24 A powerful business leader has far more opportunity to influence the course of a community and a nation than does any government official
1. 每一个政府官员都很难自己做出决策。每一个政令的颁布表面上仿佛是由一个人宣布的，其实背后的程序过程都是十分繁杂的。seperation of the three powers(the legislative, executive and judicial powers) In this work he argued that the three powers a state has are the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial and that for a state to remain democratic, these powers must be separated and there must be checks and balances to prevent a single group from acquiring control over two or more of them.
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restict restriction confine constrain curb administration collective the seperation of the three powers: the legislative the executive and the judicial decision-making carry out implement perform politics-centered economy-centered influence effect impact historical influential abound
on balance=with all things considered admittedly opportunity commerce commercial check-and-balance system 制约平衡制度 scandal illuminate illumination luminous lumination technic technical technology technician technological entity equity seems to pale next to...
Yet the impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry.
by virture of for the sake of on the account of
1. Admittedly, 领导人的作用有时不象企业家一样apparent. 因为国家的发展，人们的生活，与企业closely related. 比如GATES，领导了信息产业革命；Rockefeller，控制国家的石油命脉took control of American oil supply。企业家通过影响企业的行为，从而直观上影响人course of a community.
2. 但是，企业的一切影响is based on its existence, which is permitted by the government. 政府制定各种policy来允许企业的存在，企业家的一切行为需要被政府允许才能产生作用。
3. Moreover, 影响一个国家，需要强大的power, which can be only generated from absolutely authority. 这样的绝对权力是企业不具备的。Yet even a cursory review of the history reveals substantial evidence that it is the government leader rather than the business leader that can make the pivotal decision when the nation is in crisis. 比如，在经济recession，企业的力量无法使经济好转，revive the economy of the whole nation, 只有政府运用行政措施，制定positive policy to stimulate the companies and thus the economy of the whole nation. 比如Roosevelt. Bill Clinton. financial policy
View 1: Unlike business leader, government power is likely to subject to many more restraints. Our check-and-balance system, the legislation influence and the voting power are all factors that temper the power of government official to the course of a community or a nation. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold the actual legislative and judicial power by their financial supporting of official activities such as governmental elections.
View2: While take more thorough consideration, the government official is likely to have more direct and broad influence on a community and a nation.
Evidence: various approach to influence other than financial approach
In addition the governmental official have the abilities to regulate commerce,
Historical examples of both influential public officials and influential business leaders abound. However, the power of the modern-era business leader is quite different from that of the government official. On balance, the CEO seems to be better positioned to influence the course of community and of nations.
Admittedly the opportunities for the legislator to regulate commerce or of the jurist to dictate rules of equity are official and immediate. No private individual can hold that brand of influence. Yet official power is tempered by our check-and-balance system (制约平衡制度) of government and, in the case of legislators, by the voting power of the electorate. Our business leaders are not so constrained, so, their opportunities far exceed those of any public official. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold de facto legislative and judicial power by way of their direct influence over public officials, as the Clinton Administration’s fund-raising scandal of 1997 illuminated all too well.
The industrial and technological eras have bred such moguls of capitalism as Pullman, Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Gates, who by the nature of their industries and their business savvy, not by force of law, have transformed our economy, the nature of work, and our very day-to-day (adj. 日常的, 逐日的) existence. Of course, many modern-day public servants have made the most of their opportunities—for example, the crime-busting (bust: to break or smash especially with force;) mayor Rudolph Giuliani and the new-dealing President Franklin Roosevelt. Yet their impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry.
In sum, modem business leaders by virtue of the far-reaching impact of their industries and of their freedom from external constraints, have supplanted lawmakers as the great opportunists of the world and prime movers of society.
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