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一个有趣的实验——鸡、牛、草,哪两个是一类?

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小编摘要:牛、鸡、草,哪两个更接近或者可以被分为一组?在很大程度上,你的答案取决于你在哪里出生、长大。

鸡、牛、草,哪两个是一类?

 

牛、鸡、草,哪两个更接近或者可以被分为一组?在很大程度上,你的答案取决于你在哪里出生、长大。
Cow. Chicken. Grass. Which two are alike or go together? Your answer depends, in large part, on where you were born and raised.
几十年来心理学家一直怀疑:东方人和西方人思考和认知世界的方式截然不同,不久之前,能够支持这一假说的科学证据还相当罕见。不过最近15年来,研究人员已经对这一现象背后的认知类型和文化差异有了深入的了解。
Research psychologists have suspected for decades that East Asians and Westerners think about and perceive the world in fundamentally different ways. The scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis was fairly sparse until recently. In the past 15 years, however, researchers have learned a great deal about different cognitive styles and the cultural variables that produce them.
故事开始于1972年,印第安纳大学的教育心理学教授邱良黄测试了200名中国儿童和300名美国儿童。他让每个孩子看一些卡片,每张卡片上有三个物体。比如,有一张卡片上就显示一头牛、一只鸡和一堆草的图案。邱良黄要求孩子们指出哪两个物体更接近或者应该被分为一组。大多数美国儿童选择了鸡和牛,理由是“它们都是动物”。不过中国孩子大多认为牛和草应该放在一起,因为“牛吃草”。
The story begins in 1972, when Liang-Hwang Chiu, a professor of educational psychology at Indiana University at Kokomo, tested more than 200 Chinese and 300 American children. He showed each child a series of cards. Each card pictured three items. One card, for example, showed a cow, a chicken, and a patch of grass. Chiu asked the children to indicate which two objects were alike or went together. Most of the American children picked the chicken and cow. They explained their reasoning by saying that ''both are animals.'' The Chinese children, however, typically put the cow and grass together because ''cows eat grass.''
邱良黄的研究结果发表后,并没有引起人们注意,很大一部分原因是那个时代的心理科学家很少关注文化因素。直到上世纪90年代跨文化心理学成为“热门”,邱良黄的发现才重新进入人们的视野。密歇根大学的研究人员重复了邱的试验,他们测试了来自中国大陆、台湾和美国的大学生,展示给大学生的不是图片,而是三个一组的单词,如洗发水、头发和护发素。研究人员要求大学生指出哪两个的关系是最密切的。和中国人相比,美国人更倾向与认为洗发水和护发素更为接近,因为他们都是护发产品;而中国人更喜欢把洗发水和头发归为一类,因为“洗发水是清洗头发的”。
Chiu's study was rarely mentioned in the years following its publication, in large part because psychological scientists at that time paid little attention to cultural variables. In the 1990s, however, cross-cultural psychology became "hot" and Chiu's findings were resurrected. Researchers at the University of Michigan replicated Chiu's study by testing college students from China, Taiwan, and the United States. Instead of using pictures, the researchers presented participants with word triads-shampoo, hair, and conditioner, for example-and asked them to indicate which two were most closely related. The Americans were more likely than the Chinese to say that shampoo and conditioner go together because they're both hair care products. The Chinese were more likely to say that shampoo and hair go together because "shampoo washes and cleans hair."
为什么东方人和西方人的思维迥异呢?大多数研究者相信可以从他们的文化背景和成长经历中找到答案。东方人通常追求相互依赖、和谐和人际关系;而西方人大多崇尚独立、自主和个人成就。这些不同的社会导向导致不同的认知风格下,感知和思考的模式也不同。追求人际交往的人看待某事物时,将其放在与其他事物的联系等构成的背景中;独立的人往往最关注按照共有属性事物应该归为哪一类,如“动物”就是一项共有属性。
Why do East Asians and Westerners reason differently? Most researchers believe the answer can be found in their cultural backgrounds and upbringing. East Asians are typically oriented toward interdependence, harmony, and relatedness. Westerners are typically oriented toward independence, autonomy, and individual achievement. These different social orientations produce different patterns of perception and thought-in short, different cognitive styles. Interdependent persons think about objects as embedded in contexts that include relationships, whereas independent persons tend to focus on categories that are defined by shared properties such as "animal-ness."
同一国家的国民也分为独立的人和相互依赖的人吗?当然。研究人员最近用“牛、鸡、草”测试比较意大利南方人和意大利北方人,结果发现,南方人更注重相互依赖,而北方人更加独立。听到“猴子、熊猫、香蕉”三个词时,意大利北方人更可能认为猴子和熊猫最接近,应该分为一组,因为猴子和熊猫都属于同一类——都是动物;意大利南方人则更可能把猴子和香蕉归为一类,因为他们之间有关系——猴子吃香蕉。
Can independent persons and interdependent persons be found within the same nation? Absolutely. Researcher Nicole Knight recently used a variation of the "cow, chicken, grass" test to compare southern Italians, who are relatively interdependent, and northern Italians, who are relatively independent. When presented with verbal triads such as "monkey, panda, and banana," northern Italians were more likely to say that monkey and panda are alike and go together because they belong to the same category (animals). Southern Italians, however, were more likely to say that monkey and banana go together because they have a relationship (monkeys eat bananas).
认知现象因文化背景差异而不同,“牛、鸡、草”试验只验证了其中之一。还有很多需要人们关注。
The "cow, chicken, grass" studies have identified just one of many cognitive phenomena that vary according to cultural background. Stay tuned for more.
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2011-09-23 09:48 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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