Blake sprinted home in 19.26sec, just behind the world record of 19.19sec held by Bolt, but overtaking Michael Johnson's mark of 19.32.
The world 100m champion in Daegu, 21-year-old Blake finished ahead of America's Walter Dix (19.53) and another Jamaican Nickel Ashmeade (19.91).
"I was looking for this and I got it. I expected to run fast but not this fast," Blake said.
"The last 40 metres was crazy, but I'm like a beast when that happens. I just take control of the track ... the 19-second barrier is not insurmountable."
Blake managed to overshadow Bolt, whose 100m world title he took in Daegu last month, when his world record-holding compatriot was disqualified for a false start.
Bolt, 25, clocked 9.76sec to win the 100m, bettering the previous season-leading time of 9.78sec set by compatriot Asafa Powell in Lausanne on June 30.