Robles made contact with China's Liu Xiang and was disqualified after the Chinese appealed, handing Jason Richardson the gold and Liu the silver.
"Robles has been disqualified by the track referee under rule 163.2 for obstruction on the track," said an statement from world governing body, the IAAF.
Cuba launched an appeal against the decision, but it was dismissed, leaving Richardson to take a surprise gold, former world record holder Liu was elevated to silver with Britain's Andy Turner up to bronze.
Olympic champion and world record holder Robles brushed Liu's arm, causing him to trip on the final hurdle and finish in 13.27 seconds, behind Richardson, who clocked 13.16.
"Robles hit me twice, at the ninth hurdle he pulled at me but I'm sure it wasn't intentional," said Liu, who won 2004 Olympic gold and the 2007 world title.
American David Oliver, the fastest 110m hurdler this year, was not involved in the controversy, having hit the second hurdle and finished in a distant 13.44 for fifth place, later upgraded to fourth following the disqualification.