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IBM推出仿人脑认知计算机芯片

所属:生活杂谈 来源:bbc 阅读:3472 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:BBC消息,IBM近日推出新一代计算机芯片,芯片旨在模拟人类大脑的认知功能。

导读:IBM近日推出一命名为SyNAPSE的微处理器系统,称可模拟人类大脑的认知功能。系统的运作类似于神经元突触间的传导模式,认知计算机通过“学习”,可模拟人脑的情感、感知、感觉和认知功能,最终能用来理解人类行为及环境监测。SyNAPSE系统采用了两种“神经突触计算机芯片”,两种都包含256个“神经元”,其中一种包含262,144个编程“突触”,另一种包含65,536个学习“突触”。不同于生物神经元的连结方式,SyNAPSE系统“突触”是通过“感知”信号强弱来联系彼此。认知计算机领域的部分人士认为此项研究对机器产生意识带来可能,而也有人士对此持谨慎态度。

Brain map graph

IBM's processors replicate the system of synaptic connections found in the human brain

IBM has developed a microprocessor which it claims comes closer than ever to replicating the human brain.

The system is capable of "rewiring" its connections as it encounters new information, similar to the way biological synapses work.

Researchers believe that by replicating that feature, the technology could start to learn.

Cognitive computers may eventually be used for understanding human behaviour as well as environmental monitoring.

Dharmendra Modha, IBM's project leader, explained that they were trying to recreate aspects of the mind such as emotion, perception, sensation and cognition by "reverse engineering the brain."

The SyNAPSE system uses two prototype "neurosynaptic computing chips". Both have 256 computational cores, which the scientists described as the electronic equivalent of neurons.

One chip has 262,144 programmable synapses, while the other contains 65,536 learning synapses.

Man machine
 
In humans and animals, synaptic connections between brain cells physically connect themselves depending on our experience of the world. The process of learning is essentially the forming and strengthening of connections.

A machine cannot solder and de-solder its electrical tracks. However, it can simulate such a system by "turning up the volume" on important input signals, and paying less attention to others.

IBM has not released exact details of how its SyNAPSE processor works, but Dr Richard Cooper, a reader in cognitive science at Birkbeck, University of London said that it likely replicated physical connections using a "virtual machine".

Instead of stronger and weaker links, such a system would simply remember how much "attention" to pay to each signal and alter that depending on new experiences.

"Part of the trick is the learning algorithm - how should you turn those volumes up and down," said Dr Cooper.

"There's a a whole bunch of tasks that can be done just with a relatively simple system like that such as associative memory. When we see a cat we might think of a mouse."

Some future-gazers in the cognitive computing world have speculated that the technology will reach a tipping point where machine consciousness is possible.

However, Dr Mark Bishop, professor of cognitive computing at Goldsmiths, was more cautious.

"[I] understand cognition to be something over and above a process simulated by the execution of mere computations, [and] see such claims as verging on the magical," he said.

IBM's work on the SyNAPSE project continues and the company, along with its academic partners, has just been awarded $21m (£12.7m) by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

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2011-08-22 13:26 编辑:jeannn
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