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揭秘印度的童婚现象

所属:生活杂谈 来源:yeeyan.org 阅读:8904 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:童婚习俗跨越了大洲、语言、宗教和社会阶级。在印度,女孩通常配给比她大4-5岁的男孩;在也门、阿富汗等早婚率高的国家......

导读:

童婚习俗跨越了大洲、语言、宗教和社会阶级。在印度,女孩通常配给比她大4-5岁的男孩;在也门、阿富汗等早婚率高的国家......

 

印度童婚

 

Because the wedding was illegal and a secret, except to the invited guests, and because marriage rites in Rajasthan are often conducted late at night, it was well into the afternoon before the three girl brides in this dry farm settlement in the north of India began to prepare themselves for their sacred vows. They squatted side by side on the dirt, a crowd of village women holding sari cloth around them as a makeshift curtain, and poured soapy water from a metal pan over their heads. Two of the brides, the sisters Radha and Gora, were 15 and 13, old enough to understand what was happening. The third, their niece Rajani, was 5. She wore a pink T-shirt with a butterfly design on the shoulder. A grown-up helped her pull it off to bathe.

因为这桩婚事违法,并且是秘密进行的——除了被邀请的宾客以外,没有人知道,还有因为在拉贾斯坦邦(Rajasthan)——位于北印度——婚礼一般都在深夜举行,所以直到下午很晚的时候这三位小新娘才开始为婚礼做准备。她们并肩蹲坐在泥土地上,村里的一大群妇女举着纱丽布围着她们,当做临时的布帘,并将盛着肥皂水的金属盘顶在头上往下倒。只有两位较年长的新娘——15岁的Radha和13岁的Gora——明白这是怎么一回事,而另外一位只有5岁,是她们的侄女Rajani,她穿着一件肩上有蝴蝶图案的T恤,一位妇女帮她脱掉了洗澡。

The grooms were en route from their own village, many miles away. No one could afford an elephant or the lavishly saddled horses that would have been ceremonially correct for the grooms' entrance to the wedding, so they were coming by car and were expected to arrive high-spirited and drunk. The only local person to have met the grooms was the father of the two oldest girls, a slender gray-haired farmer with a straight back and a drooping mustache. This farmer, whom I will call Mr. M, was both proud and wary as he surveyed guests funneling up the rocky path toward the bright silks draped over poles for shade; he knew that if a nonbribable police officer found out what was under way, the wedding might be interrupted mid-ceremony, bringing criminal arrests and lingering shame to his family.

新郎从自己住的村子出发,还在路上,村子与这里相隔千里。因为没有人请得起大象或者是装饰豪华的马——虽然这是传统,新郎们只能坐小汽车来,而且要兴高采烈要醉醺醺的。见过新郎的唯一一位当地人是两位较年长的新娘的父亲,是一位身材修长头发花白的农民,他的背很直,还蓄了长胡子。这位农民——我把他称作M先生,正骄傲但又谨慎地看着宾客们涌上石头路,前往用丝绸覆盖的遮阴棚。他知道如果一个不愿受贿赂的警察一旦发现这里要举行什么仪式,婚礼会被打断,关联者要受到刑事逮捕,他的家族将永远蒙羞。

Rajani was Mr. M's granddaughter, the child of his oldest married daughter. She had round brown eyes, a broad little nose, and skin the color of milk chocolate. She lived with her grandparents. Her mother had moved to her husband's village, as rural married Indian women are expected to do, and this husband, Rajani's father, was rumored to be a drinker and a bad farmer. The villagers said it was the grandfather, Mr. M, who loved Rajani most; you could see this in the way he had arranged a groom for her from the respectable family into which her aunt Radha was also being married. This way she would not be lonely after her gauna, the Indian ceremony that marks the physical transfer of a bride from her childhood family to her husband's. When Indian girls are married as children, the gauna is supposed to take place after puberty, so Rajani would live for a few more years with her grandparents—and Mr. M had done well to protect this child in the meantime, the villagers said, by marking her publicly as married.

Rajani 是M先生的外孙女,是他已婚长女的女儿。这位小女孩长着一双圆圆的棕色眼睛,宽宽的小鼻子,有着牛奶巧克力颜色的肌肤。她和外祖父母住在一起,而她的妈妈已经搬到了她丈夫的村子去了,正如印度农村已婚妇女应该做的那样。这一位丈夫——Rajani 的爸爸,传言是一个酒鬼和一个不合格的农民。村民们都说,最爱Rajani 的是她的外祖父M先生,从他为她安排的婚姻中可以看出——新郎来自有名望的家族,而她的阿姨Radha也将加入这个家族。这样的话,小Rajani 在gauna(印度文化中将新娘从娘家送至丈夫家的一种仪式)之后也不会感到孤单。如果印度女子在结婚时还是孩子,gauna则应在女孩进入青春期之后进行,所以,Rajani 还可以和外祖父母多住几年。村民们都认为,M先生很好地保护了这个小女孩——通过公布她已婚。

These were things we learned in a Rajasthan village during Akha Teej, a festival that takes place during the hottest months of spring, just before the monsoon rains, and that is considered an auspicious time for weddings. We stared miserably at the 5-year-old Rajani as it became clear that the small girl in the T-shirt, padding around barefoot and holding the pink plastic sunglasses someone had given her, was also to be one of the midnight ceremony's brides. The man who had led us to the village, a cousin to Mr. M, had advised us only that a wedding was planned for two teenage sisters. That in itself was risky to disclose, as in India girls may not legally marry before age 18. But the techniques used to encourage the overlooking of illegal weddings—neighborly conspiracy, appeals to family honor—are more easily managed when the betrothed girls have at least reached puberty. The littlest daughters tend to be added on discreetly, their names kept off the invitations, the unannounced second or third bride at their own weddings.

这些就是我们在拉贾斯坦邦一个村落里了解的情况,那时正值Akha Teej(在春季最热的一个月份的节日,正好在雨季来临之前),当地人认为这是个举行婚礼的吉日。我们痛苦地注视着5岁的Rajani,清楚地意识到这个穿着T恤、拿着粉色塑料墨镜光脚到处跑的小女孩也将成为午夜婚礼的一位新娘。带我们进村的那个人是M先生的表亲,他只告诉我们婚礼是为两位姐妹准备的。但他这样说也很危险,因为印度法律禁止18岁以下的女性结婚。但是这种举办婚礼的方式曾经鼓励人们宽恕非法婚姻——通过邻里共谋、呼吁家庭荣耀,如果订婚的女性至少到了青春期,这样的婚礼就更容易操办。那两位年级较小的新娘的名字要十分谨慎地加上去,宾客们并不知道她们,她们是在自己的婚礼中未经宣布的第二和第三位新娘。

Rajani fell asleep before the ceremonials began. An uncle lifted her gently from her cot, hoisted her over one of his shoulders, and carried her in the moonlight toward the Hindu priest and the smoke of the sacred fire and the guests on plastic chairs and her future husband, a ten-year-old boy with a golden turban on his head.

Rajani 在结婚仪式开始之前睡着了。她的一位叔叔将她从小床上轻轻抱起,让她靠着自己的肩膀,在月光下抱着她走向印度教牧师,走向熊熊燃烧的圣火,走向坐在塑料椅上的宾客们,走向她的未来丈夫——一位带着金色头巾的小男孩。

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2011-08-10 09:35 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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