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巧克力简史

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小编摘要:从“给猪喝的苦涩饮料”到风靡欧洲的时髦饮品,从贵族特权到全民之爱,巧克力辗转完成变身,在人类千年的宠爱中向着更加精致美味的方向继续前行……

 导读:

想到巧克力,不禁口水直流。到底是从什么时候起,世界上就有了这种美味的食物呢?从“给猪喝的苦涩饮料”到风靡欧洲的时髦饮品,从贵族特权到全民之爱,巧克力辗转完成变身,在人类千年的宠爱中向着更加精致美味的方向继续前行……

 

巧克力

 

When most of us hear the word chocolate, we picture a bar, a box of bonbons, or a bunny. The verb that comes to mind is probably "eat", not "drink", and the most apt adjective would seem to be "sweet". But for about 90 percent of chocolate's long history, it was strictly a beverage, and sugar didn't have anything to do with it.

大多数人听到巧克力这个词时,就会联想到一条巧克力棒、一盒奶油夹心巧克力糖,或一只巧克力兔子。进入脑海的动词则很可能是“吃”,而并非“喝”;而我们想到的最恰当的形容词大概是“甜”。然而严格说来,在巧克力发展的漫长历史中,人们在绝大部分时间里都把它当做一种饮料,而且糖跟它一点关系也没有。

"I often call chocolate the best-known food that nobody knows anything about," said Alexandra Leaf, a self-described "chocolate educator" who runs a business called Chocolate Tours of New York City.

“我常说,巧克力是人人都知道但却对它一无所知的食品。”亚历山德拉·利夫如是说。她自诩为“巧克力教师”,还经营着一家名为“纽约巧克力之旅”的商店。

The Origin of Chocolate

巧克力的起源

The terminology can be a little confusing, but most experts these days use the term "cacao" to refer to the plant or its beans before processing, while the term "chocolate" refers to anything made from the beans. "Cocoa" generally refers to chocolate in a powdered form, although it can also be a British form of "cacao".

虽然有点儿让人无法理解,可如今的大多数专家都用“可可”这一术语指代可可树或尚未加工的可可豆,而用“巧克力”这一术语指代任何经由可可豆加工而成的食品。一般而言,“可可粉”是指粉末状的巧克力,虽然它在英国人眼里也是“可可”的一种形式。

Etymologists trace the origin of the word "chocolate" to the Aztec word "xocoatl", which referred to a bitter drink brewed from cacao beans. The Latin name for the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao, means "food of the gods".

词源学家对“巧克力”一词追根溯源,认为它来自阿兹特克语中“xocoatl”一词,该词指的是一种由可可豆酿制而成的苦涩饮料。在拉丁语中,可可树被称作“Theobroma cacao”,意为“神灵的食物”。

Many modern historians have estimated that chocolate has been around for about 2000 years, but recent research suggests that it may be even older.

据许多现代历史学家估算,巧克力已有大约两千年的历史,但最新研究表明,它的历史可能还要更久。

In the book The True History of Chocolate, authors Sophie and Michael Coe make a case that the earliest linguistic evidence of chocolate consumption stretches back three or even four millennia, to pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica such as the Olmec.

在《巧克力的真实历史》一书中,作者索菲和迈克尔·科以充分的证据证实,关于食用巧克力的最早文字记录可追溯至三千甚至四千年前,那是哥伦布发现新大陆之前的中美洲文明——如奥尔梅克文明——所在的年代。

Last November, anthropologists from the University of Pennsylvania announced the discovery of cacao residue on pottery excavated in Honduras that could date back as far as 1400 B.C.E. It appears that the sweet pulp of the cacao fruit, which surrounds the beans, was fermented into an alcoholic beverage of the time.

去年11月,宾夕法尼亚大学的人类学家宣布在从洪都拉斯出土的瓷器上发现了可可豆残渣的遗迹,其年代之久远可追溯至公元前1400年。看来,当时人们好像把包裹可可豆的甜美果肉发酵酿制成了一种含酒精的饮料。

"Who would have thought, looking at this, that you can eat it?" said Richard Hetzler, executive chef of the café at the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian, as he displayed a fresh cacao pod during a recent chocolate-making demonstration. "You would have to be pretty hungry, and pretty creative!"

“看看这个,谁会认为这可以吃呢?”美国史密苏尼国家博物馆印第安人馆咖啡厅的行政总厨理查德·赫茨勒在最近的一次巧克力制作演示中展示一个新鲜的可可豆荚时这样说道,“要是你能想到,那你当时肯定饥肠辘辘,同时还得有丰富的创造力。”

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2011-08-05 14:35 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • 典典 说:

    可可豆以前竟然做过货币,这个你知道吗?

    2011-08-05 16:37 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
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