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防癌必知

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小编摘要:癌症已经成为了人类的一大杀手,不过我们可以用正确的生活方式尽量减少患癌的风险。

吸烟

 

一、不要吸烟或使用任何烟草制品。美国国家癌症研究所称,吸烟可引起多种癌症,包括肺癌、食道癌、口腔癌、咽喉癌、胃癌和胰腺癌。在美国,它还是导致早发性死亡和可预防性死亡的主要原因。如果你之前曾尝试戒烟,那就不要放弃——最后总有一种方法能让你戒烟成功,麦克迪尔南(McTiernan)说。
1. Don't smoke or use any tobacco products. Smoking causes a host of cancers, including cancers of the lung, esophagus, mouth, throat, stomach and pancreas, according to the National Cancer Institute. It's also the leading cause of premature, preventable death in the United States. If you've tried to quit before, don't give up — eventually something will work, McTiernan said.
二、定期做癌症筛查。筛查测试能够查出结肠癌、乳腺癌、前列腺癌、宫颈癌和皮肤癌(询问一下医生要多久做一次,在什么年龄开始做)。即使你现在什么症状也没有,早期发现癌症会大大增加治疗甚至治愈的机会。筛查测试可包括体检、血检、超声成像、X光及基因测试。
2. Get screened for cancer regularly. Screening tests can detect cancers of the colon, breast, prostate, cervix and skin (ask your doctor how often to get them and at what age you should start). Even if you don't have any symptoms yet, finding cancer early greatly increases your chances of treatment and even cure. Screening tests can include physical exams, blood tests, imaging and X-rays and genetic tests.
三、限定饮酒量。男人一天不超过两杯,女子一天不超过一杯。据美国癌症协会称,饮酒者得口腔癌的几率是不饮酒者的6倍多。麦克迪尔南说,不能将一个星期喝的酒“存起来”, 然后将一星期的“酒量”在星期五晚上一次性喝掉。
3. Limit your alcohol consumption. This means no more than two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women. Oral cancer is six times more common in alcohol users than in people who don't drink, according to the American Cancer Society. And you can't "save up" all your drinks for a week and then binge on Friday night with your weekly "allotment," McTiernan said.
四、保护皮肤免受太阳的直射。根据美国皮肤癌基金会的说法,紫外线会破坏皮肤上的DNA,从而引起能够引发皮肤癌的基因变异。每次外出时记得擦防晒霜(最好是防晒系数为30或30以上、能防UVA和UVB的防晒霜),并戴上大沿帽和太阳镜。
4. Protect your skin from the sun. Its ultraviolet rays damage the skin's DNA and can cause genetic mutations that lead to skin cancer, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation. Use sunscreen every time you go outdoors (preferably one with an SPF of 30 or higher that protects against both UVA and UVB rays). Keep covered with a broad hat and sunglasses.
五、经常锻炼。根据疾病防控中心的研究,经常锻炼的人比不进行锻炼的人患结肠癌和乳腺癌的风险更小。你不必成为运动健将也能从运动中受益。健步走、骑自行车、跳舞或任何能提高心率并使你出汗的运动都是有益的。
5. Be physically active. Research shows active people have a lower risk of developing colon and breast cancers than people who don't exercise, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. You don't need to be a super-athlete to get the benefits of exercise. Activities such as brisk walking, biking, dancing or any exercise that raises your heart rate and makes you sweat is beneficial.
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2011-06-29 11:58 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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