Passage Thirty-one (The Causes of European Separation in 16th Century)
For a thousand years and more, the people of Europe had fought about many things, but they had been united in believing one thing: that there existed a single “Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church” of which the Bishop of Rome, under the title of the Pope, was the visible and recognizable head in succession to St. Peter. But in 1517 a German monk, Martin Luther, challenged certain Catholic teachings and renounced his obedience to the papacy. Others had followed him, including Henry VIII.
Thus Europe was divided in every which way, the southern and eastern two-thirds still Catholic, the northern and western one-third what was coming to be called Protestant, though English-ruled Ireland solidly Catholic and the Spanish-ruled Netherlands, particularly the northern part approximating to modern Holland, grew increasingly Protestant; while in virtually every country, whether officially Catholic or Protestant, those of the contrary faith fiercely attempted to convert their neighbors and equally fiercely resisted their neighbor’s attempts to convert them. For this there was no simple, friendly solution to be reached on the principle of live-and-let-live. Each party believed that it had hold of the truth, the only truth that mattered, the one that led to eternal salvation, and its adversaries clung to falsehood which must necessarily head to eternal damnation: not only for themselves but for all who should permit them to survive and infect others with their errors. Toleration, even reasonable discussion, was impossible. God and the devil could not mix. Just as Elizabeth was to ardent Catholics that Jezebel, so to earnest Protestants the Pope was “that wolfish bloodsucker,” and their Catholic fellow-creatures mad dogs, toads and other such vermin to be cleansed off the face of the earth.
These feelings, dangerous enough in themselves, were made more so by questions of geography and money. The Catholic countries bordering on the Mediterranean were by far the richest. From the beginning of the Middle Ages the Republic of Venice had controlled the trade routes to the East, bringing the wares carried out of Persia, China and the Indies by camel to her depots in Syria and reloading them in her high, gorgeously painted vessels for transshipment to Italy and beyond. Since the end of the fifteen century, first Portugal by sailing round Africa to India, then Spain by the discovery of America, had likewise been in a position to bring for sale to Europe all the rare and wonderful things for which Europe longed—silks and precious woods, sugar and spices, gold and silver, works of exquisite art and strange animals from peacock to tigers. In 1494, two years after Columbus’s first voyage to America, Pope Alexander VI had divided the unexplored world beyond the seas between Spain and Portugal as reward for their enterprise and to keep them from fighting. The other countries had respected this division so long as they remained Catholic.
1. The best title for this passage is
[A]. The History of Europe in 16th Century.
[B]. The Religious History of Europe in 16th Century.
[C]. The Causes of European Separation in 16th Century.
2. What does we learn from the passage?
[A]. The Pope had the supreme power in religion before reform.
[B]. The Pope had the greatest power in every thing outside religion.
[C]. The Pope was the real king in Europe then.
[D]. The Pope was the real ruler in Europe then.
3. What did the sentence “The other countries had respected this division so long as they remained Catholic” imply?
[A]. It implied this division could not be respected long.
[B]. It implied this division would not face a challenge.
[C]. It implied this division would be respected forever.
[D]. It implied the power of the Pope would never decline.
4. Which of the following is not mentioned as a cause to deepen the dangerous feelings?
[A]. Money. [B]. Geology. [C]. Religion. [D]. Geography.
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