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蚊子为什么喜欢叮脚?

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小编摘要:蚊子为什么喜欢叮脚?因为脚部细菌味的反应抑制了蚊子对二氧化碳的反应,蚊子转而被近距离的脚味吸引。

蚊子叮咬

 

蚊子感受人体呼出的二氧化碳,定位远处的宿主。不过这就是全部吗?有没有觉得蚊子特别喜欢叮咬你的脚呢?脚上会释放二氧化碳吗?近日有研究证实:蚊子确实是根据人体呼出的二氧化碳跟踪吸血对象,不过接近后,它们转而寻觅脚的味道,并在脚味的引导下,抵达它们最爱的吸血部位。
African malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae, use their olfactory organs, two antennae, two mouthparts (maxillary palps) and the proboscis, to search for their hosts to obtain a bloodmeal. From a distance of several tens of meters mosquitoes detect CO2 which forms part of exhaled air by humans.
蚊子利用嗅觉器官寻找宿主吸血。它们的嗅觉器官包括一对触角、一对口器(上颌触须)和一根喙。蚊子的嗅觉器官在几十米外就能感受到二氧化碳,不过,蚊子不会循二氧化碳一直飞到二氧化碳的源头—宿主的口鼻处,而是接近后转而接近宿主的脚,这也是蚊子最喜欢叮咬的部位。
However, a malaria mosquito does not follow the CO2 trail to its source, the mouth, but at a certain point close to the source is diverted toward the feet, which is the preferred biting place for this mosquito species.
荷兰瓦赫宁根大学的科研人员揭示了这种现象背后的机制。研究人员发现人脚上的细菌能产生各种气味,同时分离出十种脚部细菌味。当这些气味混合在一起的时候,对蚊子就有极大的吸引力。蚊子口器上发丝状结构下面的嗅觉神经元能探测到十种脚部细菌味中的九种。更有趣的是十种脚部细菌味中的五种可阻断蚊子对二氧化碳的反应。蚊子接近吸血对象后,对脚部细菌味的反应抑制了对二氧化碳的反应,蚊子由此停止趋向二氧化碳,转而被近距离的脚味吸引。
PhD candidate Remco Suer from the chair group Entomology of Wageningen University has uncovered a mechanism for this behavior. Previous research within this project, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation, showed that bacteria living on the human foot produce various odors and identified ten bacterial foot odors that, when offered as a blend, were attractive to malaria mosquitoes. Remco Suer now shows that nine out of these ten foot odors are detected by olfactory neurons present underneath hair-like structures on the mouthparts of the malaria mosquito. More importantly, he discovered that 5 of the 10 microbial odors are capable of blocking the response to CO2. By blocking the CO2 signal the mosquito stops orienting towards CO2 and diverts its attention to close range foot odors.
研究人员在局部制造高浓度的二氧化碳环境,模拟人体呼出的空气。结果蚊子接触脚部细菌味一秒后,数秒内对二氧化碳的敏感性都消失了。
The researcher added additional CO2 to the experiments to simulate exhaled air. A short stimulation of 1 second with the highest concentration of the five foot odors separately resulted in complete inhibition of the CO2 response for multiple seconds.
蚊子有几十种嗅觉神经元,只有其中一种有探测二氧化碳的能力。这种嗅觉神经元和其它两种嗅觉神经元一起分布在蚊子口器上发丝状结构的下方。分别检测这些嗅觉神经元的反应,科研人员确定了蚊子对哪些人类的气味有反应。十种脚部细菌味中的九种能同时兴奋这三种嗅觉神经,其中五种使嗅觉神经元对二氧化碳失去反应。
From dozens of olfactory neurons, only one type of olfactory neuron is capable detecting CO2. This olfactory neuron is co-compartmentalized together with two other olfactory neurons underneath the capitate peg sensilla, hair-like structures, present on the mouthparts of the mosquito. By registering the responses of these olfactory neurons, Suer was able to determine which human odors the female malaria mosquito detects. From the ten microbial odors previously discovered nine elicited responses from all three olfactory receptors on the mouthparts and 5 of them inhibited the CO2 response.
这个结果非常合情合理的解释了我们开始的疑问:蚊子在远处顺着二氧化碳接近吸血对象。接近后脚部细菌味激活了某些嗅觉神经元,同时抑制了蚊子对二氧化碳的嗅觉。蚊子的“制导方式”从初段二氧化碳制导转为末端的脚部细菌味制导,蚊子的目标直接转向脚部。
By inhibiting the perception of CO2, it is possible to disrupt the host seeking behavior of the malaria mosquito. Because these bacterial foot odors block the CO2 response and at the same time activate other olfactory neurons, it is very plausible that these odors cause the switch from the long distance CO2 signal to the preferred biting place, the feet. Behavioral experiments show that at short range these odors block the CO2 effect and even enhance the attractiveness of an attractive basic odor blend. This implies that these CO2 inhibitors cannot be used as repellents and even divert the orientation of the mosquito to short-range human odors.
气味阻断蚊子的二氧化碳感受器、激活其它嗅觉神经元,从而把蚊子导向这些气味的方向。这为开发新的驱蚊装置—气味诱捕系统提供了启示。诱饵只要用这些重口味的脚部细菌味就行了。
Odors that block the CO2 receptor but activate other olfactory neurons, thereby diverting the orientation of the malaria mosquito to other odor sources, have potential applications in odor trapping systems as a barrier. By placing a barrier releasing these CO2 inhibitors, it might be possible to lure malaria mosquitoes towards odor traps containing a mixture of other attractive human odors.
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2011-05-17 12:35 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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最新评论:
  • mondream 说:

    这个看着很像吸血鬼哦

    2011-05-17 14:11 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
  • cocoon520 说:

    蚊子放大这么恐怖啊

    2011-05-17 14:19 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 板凳
  • 我在想,要是我们的采血设备等医疗仪器可以像蚊子的喙一样就好了,插入皮肤毫无疼痛

    2011-05-17 16:49 回复 支持(0) 反对(1) 地板
  • lcl910 说:

    可恶的蚊子,吸了血之后就是那个样子,肚子鼓鼓的里面全是血。每次我都看它喝饱成这样的时候,一巴掌拍死它,拍出来一摊血。我心里开心死了。

    2011-05-18 09:13 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 4 楼
  • Kill one mosquito in winter eque kill one thsound in summer.

    2011-05-18 13:09 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 5 楼
  • For me, why is the preferred biting place is legs rather than feet?

    2011-05-20 09:41 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 6 楼
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