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雅思阅读篇:名人广告效应

所属:雅思 作者:朗阁海外中心郑琳 来源:海词家园 阅读:3421 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:雅思阅读考试多与时事紧密相关。名人代言早已司空见惯,这也成为雅思考试里的热门话题。

【时事聚焦】时下名人代言各个品牌的产品并不足为奇,当然名人代言也对我们的生活和购买动向产生了正面或负面的影响。经许多研究发现表明,明星名人代言在性别上也会有不同的影响。请看以下美国商业杂志上的一篇相关报道:

Celebrity Endorsements: An Examination of Gender and Consumers’ Attitudes

    Celebrity endorsements have long been used as a source of marketing messages to promote a wide variety of products and services. Companies have been spending huge amounts of money to have athletes and other celebrities endorse both sports and non-sports products. Celebrity images can be found in print, radio, and approximately 20 percent of all television commercials (Boyd and Shank 2004). Within a relatively short time, the amount of money spent on athletes in advertising has skyrocketed. In 1986, companies paid approximately $100 million for endorsements, licensing rights, and advertising (Peetz, Parks, and Spencer 2004). Ten years later, that amount had risen to more than $1 billion, as athlete endorsement expenditures have hovered around $1 billion dollars annually for the past ten years (Peetz, Parks, and Spencer 2004).

    The actions of athletic products manufacturer Nike underscores the nature of spending on athlete endorsements. During an eight-month period in 2004, Nike invested $192 million in endorsement deals with National Basketball Association (NBA) rookies Lebron James ($90 million) and Carmello Anthony ($15 million); NBA star Kobe Bryant ($45 million); tennis star Serena Williams ($40 million); 14-year old U.S. soccer talent Freddy Adu ($1 million); and Canadian world champion hurdler Perdita Felicien ($1 million). These were deals within an eight-month timeframe and did not take into account existing deals with golfer Tiger Woods, National Football League player Michael Vick (currently serving a prison sentence and suspended by the NFL), Major League Baseball’s Derek Jeter, track’s Marion Jones (another athlete who recently admitted to drug use and had her 2000 Olympic medals stripped), and soccer’s Mia Hamm (Thomaselli 2004).

    As a result of the pervasiveness of celebrity endorsement in advertising, much has been studied and written about this phenomenon over the past several years (for recent examples, see Bailey 2007; Biswas, Biswas, and Das 2006; Thomson 2006). The studies have explored a number of issues related to such factors as the relative effectiveness of celebrity endorsers in advertising, the factors that impact consumer response to celebrity endorsers, and, more recently, the consequences of negative information or publicity surrounding a celebrity endorser (for example, Bailey 2007; Louie and Obermiller 2002; Silvera and Austad 2004; Till and Shimp 1998). The introductory quote from Peetz, Parks, and Spencer (2004) encapsulates the reasons that marketers have been using celebrities as endorsers, while Jones and Schumann (2000) underscore that there is a high price tag attached to this endeavor.

    Although the use of athletes as endorsers and the amount of money spent on these endorsers is increasing, there still remains much to be learned about how consumers perceive athlete endorsers and the variables that influence endorser effectiveness. More specifically, we know little about the impact of gender—both gender of the consumer and gender of the endorser—on consumers’ attitudes and perceptions. The study seeks to determine whether the gender of the consumer who is exposed to a celebrity endorsement will impact how that consumer views a male or female celebrity endorser. The paper is organized as follows: First, background information on celebrity endorsement is presented and testable hypotheses are developed. We then provide details of an experimental study that was undertaken to test these hypotheses. The results of the experiment are presented and these findings are discussed. Finally, the study’s limitations are highlighted and avenues for future research are suggested.

 

【热点话题】根据上述报道,由于名人效应,所以很多公司把名人代言广告作为公司打入市场的主要渠道,同时也不惜在名人广告费上花大手笔。本篇文章通过引证其他学者的调查研究来陈述在近些年各个公司和品牌在名人代言上的动态和花费。朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,这类话题是近两年雅思阅读和写作比较热门的话题,希望大家多多予以关注。此外,像这类的学术类文章一般多会出人名-观点搭配和多选题。

【难句词汇】雅思考生的阅读难点之一就是词汇量和句型的掌握程度的不同,如果学生的词汇量不足,那么文章将看不懂,我们从上文中就可以学到很多的句型和词汇。

 

›As a result of the pervasiveness of celebrity endorsement in advertising, much has been studied and written about this phenomenon over the past several years (for recent examples, see Bailey 2007; Biswas, Biswas, and Das 2006; Thomson 2006).

表被动语态的简单句

Pervasiveness n. 无处不在、普遍性

Celebrity endorsement 名人代言

 

›The studies have explored a number of issues related to such factors as the relative effectiveness of celebrity endorsers in advertising, the factors that impact consumer response to celebrity endorsers, and, more recently, the consequences of negative information or publicity surrounding a celebrity endorser (for example, Bailey 2007; Louie and Obermiller 2002; Silvera and Austad 2004; Till and Shimp 1998).

主语从句、定语从句

effectiveness n. 效力

Celebrity endorsers n. 名人代言者

publicity n. 宣传、宣扬

Such factors as... 譬如。。。这样的因素

 

›The introductory quote from Peetz, Parks, and Spencer (2004) encapsulates the reasons that marketers have been using celebrities as endorsers, while Jones and Schumann (2000) underscore that there is a high price tag attached to this endeavor.

同位语从句、while引导的对比从句

introductory quote 介绍部分的引证

encapsulate vt. 概述

underscore vt. 强调

price tag 价格标签

endeavor  n. 努力

 

›Although the use of athletes as endorsers and the amount of money spent on these endorsers is increasing, there still remains much to be learned about how consumers perceive athlete endorsers and the variables that influence endorser effectiveness.

让步转折状语从句、宾语从句和定语从句

perceive vt. 察觉、感知

variables n. 变数、变量

 

›The study seeks to determine whether the gender of the consumer who is exposed to a celebrity endorsement will impact how that consumer views a male or female celebrity endorser.

宾语从句、定语从句

determine vt. 确定

is exposed to... 使易受、暴露于………

Female celebrity endorser 女名人代言者

从行文架构来说,本篇文章引证了多位专家的发现和观点,这在学术类阅读中也是比较常见的。事实上,任何一篇能编排出人名-观点型Matching题目的雅思阅读文章,都可以被看作这篇文章在结构上的翻版。考虑到人名-观点型Matching本身又是雅思阅读高频题型之一,本文的借鉴意义更加明显。

 

【真题预测】根据刚才关于celebrity advertising的原版文章,我们来练习一下雅思阅读的常考题型之—— 人名-观点搭配题:

Look at the following statements (Questions 1-3) and the list of researchers below.

Match each statement with the correct researcher(s), A-D.

Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

NB. You may use any letter more than once.

1.  The causes that many large corporations have been employing some famous people in society to advertise their products were quoted in the introductory part.

2.  There can be many famous people's images in a range of media like radios or television.

3.  The top-ranking sportsmen endorsement expenditures have been constantly soared to over $1 billion during the past decade.

 

                  List of Researchers

                A. Jones and Schumann

                B. Peetz, Parks, and Spencer

                C. Boyd and Shank

                D. Silvera and Austad

 

 

Key: B C B

 

 
标签:雅思 IELTS
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2011-05-04 14:43 编辑:红木梳子
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