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雅思写作篇:延迟退休成为全球趋势

所属:雅思 作者:朗阁海外中心郑琳 来源:海词家园 阅读:4036 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:雅思写作考试多与时事紧密相关。随着老龄化问题的日益严重,延迟退休似乎已经是大势所趋。那么在雅思的写作考试里遇到这样的问题时该从哪些方面着手呢?

【时事聚焦】由于全球人口平均预期寿命的不断增长和老龄化现象的加剧,各国都面临养老金不足和社会保险经济压力过重的问题。包括英国、德国、法国、美国在内的众多国家都不约而同地出台了延迟法定退休年龄的措施,这一现象已经成为世界流行的趋势。同时,也因为损害了劳动者权益,遭到了其国内民众的强烈反对:

 EU urges governments to raise retirement age

(BRUSSELS) - European governments need to raise the retirement age because workers are living longer and their pension systems could implode, the European Commission said on Wednesday.

The European Union's executive arm formally launched a debate already raging in several EU countries that are planning unpopular measures to bring down huge public deficits and keep their pension systems afloat.

"The number of retired people in Europe compared to those financing their pensions is forecast to double by 2060 -- the current situation is simply not sustainable," said EU social affairs commissioner Laszlo Andor.

"The choice we face is poorer pensioners, higher pension contributions or more people working more and longer," Andor said at the official presentation of a "green paper" on pensions.

Weak growth, ballooning national debt and higher unemployment "have made it harder" to make good on pension promises and "more urgent" to reform them, the commission paper says.

In the past 50 years, life expectancy in the European Union has risen by about five years and could increase by another seven years by 2060, the commission says.

At the moment there are four working-age people for every person over 65 in the 27-nation EU. That ratio will drop to two for every person over 65 by 2060, the commission says.

On average, Europeans retired at the age of 61.4 in 2008.

This compares to 65 years for workers in the United States and 70 years in Japan. In the 31-nation Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the average retirement age for men is 63.5.

Andor denied "unfounded rumours" that he was calling for the retirement age to be raised to 70 in Europe.

John Monks, general secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation, said the commission's proposal was "unrealistic".

"Where is the evidence that employers want to keep older workers in work?" Monks said in a statement.

"We know the life expectation is rising but see no evidence that a higher age of retirement would be matched by employers developing workplaces which encourage older workers to remain at work," he said.

 我们来看看各国在这一问题上的不同反应:

Govt denies immediate plan for retirement age rise

BEIJING - China's human resources authorities are seeking to relieve growing public concerns over the government's reported consideration to lift the retirement age in response to a financial shortage facing the country's pension fund.

"China has no immediate plan to adjust the retirement age," an unidentified official of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MHRSS) was quoted as saying on Thursday by People's Daily.

France retirement age protests turn violent

(PARIS) Protests against a proposed hike in retirement age by the French government took an increasingly radical turn with masked youths setting fires in cities across France yesterday.

UK retirement age challenge fails

In the UK, a worker can see their employment end at the age of 65 without any redundancy payment - even if they do not want to retire.

However the judge in the case said there was a compelling case for the compulsory retirement age to rise.

【热点话题】      朗阁雅思达人今天想就老龄化导致的退休年龄问题和大家聊聊写作。


前面这则新闻来源于ebusiness,报道源于欧盟出台的一份报告,敦促欧洲各国提高退休年龄,以缓解退休金支付压力。根据欧盟委员会预计,为了保持现有的退休金支付水平,至2060年,欧盟27个成员国必须将退休年龄提高至70岁。后面的几则新闻则摘取了来自于中国﹑法国和英国政府及民众对于提高退休年龄这一问题的不同态度和行动。一向关注“弱势群体”和“热点问题”的雅思出题者,也在曾经的题目中谈及这方面的内容,我们来看一下以下两道题目:


 

1.    In many countries, the proportion of older people is steadily increasing. Does this trend have more positive or negative effects on the society?

2.    In some countries the average worker is obliged to retire at the age of 50, while in others people can work until they are 65 or 70. Meanwhile, we see some politicians enjoying power well into their eighties. Clearly, there is little agreement on an appropriate retirement age. Until what age do you think people should be encouraged to remain in paid employment?

 一道题目是讨论老龄化带来的影响,众所周知,这一现象给社会造成了沉重的经济压力,在出生率低寿命较长的西方国家,这一问题导致的直接后果就是“是否要提高退休年龄”,因为这是解决养老金缺口最立竿见影的办法。

 另一道题目是关于退休年龄的讨论,实际上,各国对于退休年龄的不同态度取决于自身利益,发达国家民众反对延迟退休,是因为担心福利;而在中国,特别是体力劳动者及低收入群体反对延迟退休,是因为担心生计。

朗阁海外考试研究中心建议考生可以从这样的一些现实问题中去看待甚至分析题目,并给出相对全面的观点。

 【精彩片段】      下面我们回到刚才的那则新闻摘要中,关注其中对雅思写作此类话题构思及语言有帮助的精彩片段:

 The choice we face is poorer pensioners, higher pension contributions or more people working more and longer.

这句话很好地回答了在老龄化的背景下人们将会面临的问题:靠养老金生活的人生活更为窘迫,养老金缴款更高,人们需要工作更多更长。

We know the life expectation is rising but see no evidence that a higher age of retirement would be matched by employers developing workplaces which encourage older workers to remain at work.

人们都知道人均寿命在增长,但没有证据证明延迟退休年龄将适合那些准备鼓励上了年纪的劳动者继续留在工作岗位上的雇主。”

【高端词汇】      朗阁雅思达人为大家整理了雅思写作中与话题相关的一些常用词汇。

life expectancy 预期寿命

ageing 老龄化

fertility出生率

mortality 死亡率

senior citizen 老人

spend one’s remaining days happily 安度晚年

enjoy family union 享受一家团聚的乐趣

live in solitude 孤独地生活

financial difficulty 经济困难

unstable life without pension 没有保险金的不稳定生活

nursing home 养老院

show filial obedience 表现出孝顺

spiritual comfort 精神安慰

emotional support 精神支持

provision for the aged 养老

social security fund 社保基金

 

标签:雅思 IELTS
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2011-05-03 14:39 编辑:红木梳子
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